1997 2002 2008 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 accumulators algorand anonymity applications attacks bitcoin blockchain book bullet-proofs byzantine casper chainspace consensus credentials crime cross-chain cryptocurrencies dag data-science discrete-log e-voting ecdsa eos ethereum exchanges formal-methods game-theory governance iota key-management lattices layer2 litecoin mining monero network oracles ouroboros permissioned pki post-quantum privacy proof-of-* proof-of-space proof-of-stake proof-of-work provable-security ripple scalability secure-multiparty-computation sidechains signatures simple-verification-payments smart-contracts snarks solidity starks storage survey tendermint tezos theory thesis truebit trusted-computing vdf wallet whitepaper zero-knowledge zerocash zerocoin