1992 1997 2002 2008 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 accumulators algorand anonymity applications attacks bitcoin blockchain book bullet-proofs byzantine casper chainspace consensus credentials crime cross-chain cryptocurrencies dag data-science defi discrete-log e-voting ecdsa eos ethereum exchanges formal-methods game-theory governance guo iota key-management layer2 light-client litecoin mining monero network oracles ouroboros permissioned pki post-quantum privacy proof-of-* proof-of-space proof-of-stake proof-of-storage proof-of-work provable-security ripple scalability secure-multiparty-computation sidechains signatures simple-payment-verification smart-contracts snark-friendly snarks solidity storage survey tendermint tezos theory thesis truebit trusted-computing vdf wallet whitepaper zero-knowledge zerocash zerocoin