A curated list of papers ordered by number of citations. Last updated 2019-11-11

#Title
Citations
1.Ethereum: a secure decentralised generalised transaction ledger Wood, Gavin. 2014
1832
2.Blockchains and smart contracts for the internet of things Christidis, Konstantinos and Devetsikiotis, Michael. 2016
1333
3.Hawk: The blockchain model of cryptography and privacy-preserving smart contracts Kosba, Ahmed and Miller, Andrew and Shi, Elaine and Wen, Zikai and Papamanthou, Charalampos. 2016
902
4.A next-generation smart contract and decentralized application platform Buterin, Vitalik. 2014
780
5.Formalizing and securing relationships on public networks Szabo, Nick. 1997
698
6.Making smart contracts smarter Luu, Loi and Chu, Duc-Hiep and Olickel, Hrishi and Saxena, Prateek and Hobor, Aquinas. 2016
582
7.Hyperledger fabric: a distributed operating system for permissioned blockchains Androulaki, Elli and Barger, Artem and Bortnikov, Vita and Cachin, Christian and Christidis, Konstantinos and De Caro, Angelo and Enyeart, David and Ferris, Christopher and Laventman, Gennady and Manevich, Yacov and Muralidharan, Srinivasan and Murthy, Chet and Nguyen, Binh and Sethi, Manish and Singh, Gari and Smith, Keith and Sorniotti, Alessandro and Stathakopoulou, Chrysoula and Vukolić, Marko and Weed Cocco, Sharon and Yellick, Jason. 2018
536
8.A survey of attacks on ethereum smart contracts (sok) Atzei, Nicola and Bartoletti, Massimo and Cimoli, Tiziana. 2017
408
9.Step by step towards creating a safe smart contract: Lessons and insights from a cryptocurrency lab Delmolino, Kevin and Arnett, Mitchell and Kosba, Ahmed and Miller, Andrew and Shi, Elaine. 2016
291
10.Formal verification of smart contracts: Short paper Bhargavan, Karthikeyan and Delignat-Lavaud, Antoine and Fournet, C\'edric and Gollamudi, Anitha and Gonthier, Georges and Kobeissi, Nadim and Kulatova, Natalia and Rastogi, Aseem and Sibut-Pinote, Thomas and Swamy, Nikhil and others. 2016
248
11.Town crier: An authenticated data feed for smart contracts Zhang, Fan and Cecchetti, Ethan and Croman, Kyle and Juels, Ari and Shi, Elaine. 2016
236
12.An empirical analysis of smart contracts: platforms, applications, and design patterns Bartoletti, Massimo and Pompianu, Livio. 2017
184
13.Finding The Greedy, Prodigal, and Suicidal Contracts at Scale Nikolic, Ivica and Kolluri, Aashish and Sergey, Ilya and Saxena, Prateek and Hobor, Aquinas. 2018
119
14.Zeus: Analyzing safety of smart contracts Kalra, Sukrit and Goel, Seep and Dhawan, Mohan and Sharma, Subodh. 2018
118
15.Securify: Practical security analysis of smart contracts Tsankov, Petar and Dan, Andrei and Drachsler-Cohen, Dana and Gervais, Arthur and Buenzli, Florian and Vechev, Martin. 2018
105
16.Defining the ethereum virtual machine for interactive theorem provers Hirai, Yoichi. 2017
102
17.Under-optimized smart contracts devour your money Chen, Ting and Li, Xiaoqi and Luo, Xiapu and Zhang, Xiaosong. 2017
81
18.A Semantic Framework for the Security Analysis of Ethereum smart contracts Grishchenko, Ilya and Maffei, Matteo and Schneidewind, Clara. 2018
78
19.Towards Verifying Ethereum Smart Contract Bytecode in Isabelle/HOL Amani, Sidney and B\'egel, Myriam and Bortin, Maksym and Staples, Mark. 2018
73
20.KEVM: A Complete Semantics of the Ethereum Virtual Machine Hildenbrandt, Everett and Saxena, Manasvi and Zhu, Xiaoran and Rodrigues, Nishant and Daian, Philip and Guth, Dwight and Rosu, Grigore. 2017
57
21.A concurrent perspective on smart contracts Sergey, Ilya and Hobor, Aquinas. 2017
55
22.Scilla: a Smart Contract Intermediate-Level LAnguage Sergey, Ilya and Kumar, Amrit and Hobor, Aquinas. 2018
53
23.Online detection of effectively callback free objects with applications to smart contracts Grossman, Shelly and Abraham, Ittai and Golan-Gueta, Guy and Michalevsky, Yan and Rinetzky, Noam and Sagiv, Mooly and Zohar, Yoni. 2017
53
24.SCPKI: A smart contract-based PKI and identity system Al-Bassam, Mustafa. 2017
51
25.Designing secure Ethereum smart contracts: A finite state machine based approach Mavridou, Anastasia and Laszka, Aron. 2017
46
26.Smart contracts: security patterns in the ethereum ecosystem and solidity Wohrer, Maximilian and Zdun, Uwe. 2018
46
27.teether: Gnawing at ethereum to automatically exploit smart contracts Krupp, Johannes and Rossow, Christian. 2018
46
28.Madmax: Surviving out-of-gas conditions in ethereum smart contracts Grech, Neville and Kong, Michael and Jurisevic, Anton and Brent, Lexi and Scholz, Bernhard and Smaragdakis, Yannis. 2018
46
29.A scalable verification solution for blockchains Teutsch, Jason and Reitwie\ssner, Christian. 2017
45
30.ContractFuzzer: fuzzing smart contracts for vulnerability detection Jiang, Bo and Liu, Ye and Chan, WK. 2018
41
31.Simplicity: A new language for blockchains O'Connor, Russell. 2017
39
32.Setting standards for altering and undoing smart contracts Marino, Bill and Juels, Ari. 2016
37
33.Smartcheck: Static analysis of ethereum smart contracts Tikhomirov, Sergei and Voskresenskaya, Ekaterina and Ivanitskiy, Ivan and Takhaviev, Ramil and Marchenko, Evgeny and Alexandrov, Yaroslav. 2018
37
34.Validation of decentralised smart contracts through game theory and formal methods Bigi, Giancarlo and Bracciali, Andrea and Meacci, Giovanni and Tuosto, Emilio. 2015
36
35.Vandal: A scalable security analysis framework for smart contracts Brent, Lexi and Jurisevic, Anton and Kong, Michael and Liu, Eric and Gauthier, Francois and Gramoli, Vincent and Holz, Ralph and Scholz, Bernhard. 2018
35
36.Erays: Reverse engineering ethereum’s opaque smart contracts Zhou, Yi and Kumar, Deepak and Bakshi, Surya and Mason, Joshua and Miller, Andrew and Bailey, Michael. 2018
29
37.0x: An open protocol for decentralized exchange on the Ethereum blockchain Warren, Will and Bandeali, Amir. 2017
29
38.Smart contracts make bitcoin mining pools vulnerable Velner, Yaron and Teutsch, Jason and Luu, Loi. 2017
27
39.Arbitrum: scalable, private smart contracts Kalodner, Harry and Goldfeder, Steven and Chen, Xiaoqi and Weinberg, S Matthew and Felten, Edward W. 2018
26
40.Empirical Vulnerability Analysis of Automated Smart Contracts Security Testing on Blockchains Parizi, Reza M and Dehghantanha, Ali and Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond and Singh, Amritraj. 2018
25
41.Formal verification of smart contracts based on users and blockchain behaviors models Abdellatif, Tesnim and Brousmiche, Kei-L\'eo. 2018
25
42.Bitcoin covenants M\"oser, Malte and Eyal, Ittay and Sirer, Emin G\"un. 2016
24
43.FairSwap: How to fairly exchange digital goods Dziembowski, Stefan and Eckey, Lisa and Faust, Sebastian. 2018
24
44.Obsidian: a safer blockchain programming language Coblenz, Michael. 2017
23
45.M{\"o}bius: Trustless Tumbling for Transaction Privacy Sarah Meiklejohn and Rebekah Mercer. 2017
22
46.A formal verification tool for Ethereum VM Bytecode Park, Daejun and Zhang, Yi and Saxena, Manasvi and Daian, Philip and Ro\csu, Grigore. 2018
21
47.Smashing ethereum smart contracts for fun and real profit Mueller, Bernhard. 2018
21
48.BitML: a calculus for Bitcoin smart contracts Massimo Bartoletti and Roberto Zunino. 2018
20
49.Proofs-of-delay and randomness beacons in ethereum B\"unz, Benedikt and Goldfeder, Steven and Bonneau, Joseph. 2017
20
50.SoK: unraveling Bitcoin smart contracts Nicola Atzei and Massimo Bartoletti and Tiziana Cimoli and Stefano Lande and Roberto Zunino. 2018
19
51.Constant-deposit multiparty lotteries on Bitcoin Bartoletti, Massimo and Zunino, Roberto. 2017
19
52.EthIR: A Framework for High-Level Analysis of Ethereum Bytecode Albert, Elvira and Gordillo, Pablo and Livshits, Benjamin and Rubio, Albert and Sergey, Ilya. 2018
18
53.Porosity: A decompiler for blockchain-based smart contracts bytecode Suiche, Matt. 2017
18
54.Raziel: private and verifiable smart contracts on blockchains S\'anchez, David Cerezo. 2018
17
55.Formal verification of Deed contract in Ethereum name service Hirai, Yoichi. 2016
16
56.Ethereum smart contracts: Security vulnerabilities and security tools Dika, Ardit. 2017
16
57.Enter the Hydra: Towards Principled Bug Bounties and Exploit-Resistant Smart Contracts Breidenbach, Lorenz and Cornell Tech, IC and Daian, Philip and Tramer, Florian and Juels, Ari. 2018
15
58.Towards safer smart contracts: A survey of languages and verification methods Harz, Dominik and Knottenbelt, William. 2018
13
59.Osiris: Hunting for integer bugs in ethereum smart contracts Torres, Christof Ferreira and Sch\"utte, Julian and others. 2018
13
60.Flash Boys 2.0: Frontrunning, Transaction Reordering, and Consensus Instability in Decentralized Exchanges Daian, Philip and Goldfeder, Steven and Kell, Tyler and Li, Yunqi and Zhao, Xueyuan and Bentov, Iddo and Breidenbach, Lorenz and Juels, Ari. 2019
12
61.Exploiting the laws of order in smart contracts Kolluri, Aashish and Nikolic, Ivica and Sergey, Ilya and Hobor, Aquinas and Saxena, Prateek. 2019
11
62.Enhancing Bitcoin transactions with covenants O’Connor, Russell and Piekarska, Marta. 2017
10
63.Zexe: Enabling decentralized private computation Bowe, S and Chiesa, A and Green, M and Miers, I and Mishra, P and Wu, H. 2018
10
64.Zether: Towards Privacy in a Smart Contract World. B\"unz, Benedikt and Agrawal, Shashank and Zamani, Mahdi and Boneh, Dan. 2019
10
65.Smt-based verification of solidity smart contracts Alt, Leonardo and Reitwiessner, Christian. 2018
10
66.Model-Checking of Smart Contracts Nehai, Zeinab and Piriou, Pierre-Yves and Daumas, Frederic. 2018
9
67.Proof-of-Work Sidechains Kiayias, Aggelos and Zindros, Dionysis. 2018
9
68.GASTAP: A Gas Analyzer for Smart Contracts Albert, Elvira and Gordillo, Pablo and Rubio, Albert and Sergey, Ilya. 2018
8
69.Ekiden: A Platform for Confidentiality-Preserving, Trustworthy, and Performant Smart Contracts Cheng, Raymond and Zhang, Fan and Kos, Jernej and He, Warren and Hynes, Nicholas and Johnson, Noah and Juels, Ari and Miller, Andrew and Song, Dawn. 2019
8
70.Analyzing Ethereum's Contract Topology Kiffer, Lucianna and Levin, Dave and Mislove, Alan. 2018
8
71.Formal Specification and Verification of Smart Contracts for Azure Blockchain Lahiri, Shuvendu K and Chen, Shuo and Wang, Yuepeng and Dillig, Isil. 2018
8
72.Smart contracts and opportunities for formal methods Miller, Andrew and Cai, Zhicheng and Jha, Somesh. 2018
8
73.Fun with Bitcoin smart contracts Massimo Bartoletti and Tiziana Cimoli and Roberto Zunino. 2018
7
74.Sereum: Protecting Existing Smart Contracts Against Re-Entrancy Attacks Rodler, Michael and Li, Wenting and Karame, Ghassan O and Davi, Lucas. 2018
7
75.A survey of tools for analyzing ethereum smart contracts Di Angelo, Monika and Salzer, Gernot. 2019
7
76.Marlowe: Financial contracts on blockchain Seijas, Pablo Lamela and Thompson, Simon. 2018
7
77.Temporal Properties of Smart Contracts Sergey, Ilya and Kumar, Amrit and Hobor, Aquinas. 2018
6
78.Loopring: A decentralized token exchange protocol Wang, Daniel and Zhou, Jay and Wang, Alex and Finestone, Matthew. 2018
6
79.VeriSolid: Correct-by-Design Smart Contracts for Ethereum Mavridou, Anastasia and Laszka, Aron and Stachtiari, Emmanouela and Dubey, Abhishek. 2019
6
80.Monitoring smart contracts: Contractlarva and open challenges beyond Azzopardi, Shaun and Ellul, Joshua and Pace, Gordon J. 2018
6
81.Executable Operational Semantics of Solidity Jiao, Jiao and Kan, Shuanglong and Lin, Shang-Wei and Sanan, David and Liu, Yang and Sun, Jun. 2018
5
82.Contracts over Smart Contracts: Recovering from Violations Dynamically Colombo, Christian and Ellul, Joshua and Pace, Gordon J. 2018
5
83.Verifying liquidity of Bitcoin contracts Bartoletti, Massimo and Zunino, Roberto. 2018
5
84.Precise Attack Synthesis for Smart Contracts Feng, Yu and Torlak, Emina and Bodik, Rastislav. 2019
4
85.FastKitten: Practical Smart Contracts on Bitcoin Das, Poulami and Eckey, Lisa and Frassetto, Tommaso and Gens, David and Host\'akov\'a, Kristina and Jauernig, Patrick and Faust, Sebastian and Sadeghi, Ahmad-Reza. 2019
4
86.Pay-To-Win: Incentive Attacks on Proof-of-Work Cryptocurrencies Aljosha Judmayer and Nicholas Stifter and Alexei Zamyatin and Itay Tsabary and Ittay Eyal and Peter Gazi and Sarah Meiklejohn and Edgar Weippl. 2019
4
87.Beigepaper: An Ethereum Technical Specification Dameron, Micah. 2017
4
88.EtherTrust: Sound static analysis of ethereum bytecode Grishchenko, Ilya and Maffei, Matteo and Schneidewind, Clara. 2018
4
89.SoK: Transparent Dishonesty: front-running attacks on Blockchain Eskandari, Shayan and Moosavi, Seyedehmahsa and Clark, Jeremy. 2019
3
90.Self-reproducing coins as universal turing machine Chepurnoy, Alexander and Kharin, Vasily and Meshkov, Dmitry. 2018
3
91.Slither: a static analysis framework for smart contracts Feist, Josselin and Grieco, Gustavo and Groce, Alex. 2019
3
92.Towards a Smart Contract-based, Decentralized, Public-Key Infrastructure Patsonakis, Christos and Samari, Katerina and Roussopoulos, Mema and Kiayias, Aggelos. 2017
2
93.The Art of The Scam: Demystifying Honeypots in Ethereum Smart Contracts Torres, Christof Ferreira and Steichen, Mathis. 2019
2
94.TEX - A Securely Scalable Trustless Exchange Rami Khalil and Arthur Gervais and Guillaume Felley. 2019
2
95.Smartanvil: Open-source tool suite for smart contract analysis Ducasse, St\'ephane and Rocha, Henrique and Bragagnolo, Santiago and Denker, Marcus and Francomme, Cl\'ement. 2019
2
96.Mi-Cho-Coq, a framework for certifying Tezos Smart Contracts Bernardo, Bruno and Cauderlier, Rapha\"el and Hu, Zhenlei and Pesin, Basile and Tesson, Julien. 2019
2
97.On the specification and verification of atomic swap smart contracts⋆ van der Meyden, Ron. 2018
1
98.ACE: Asynchronous and Concurrent Execution of Complex Smart Contracts Karl Wüst and Sinisa Matetic and Silvan Egli and Kari Kostiainen and Srdjan Capkun. 2019
1
99.Bitcontracts: Adding Expressive Smart Contracts to Legacy Cryptocurrencies Karl Wüst and Loris Diana and Kari Kostiainen and Ghassan Karame and Sinisa Matetic and Srdjan Capkun. 2019
1
100.solc-verify: A Modular Verifier for Solidity Smart Contracts Hajdu, \'Akos and Jovanovi\'c, Dejan. 2019
1
101.VerX: Safety Verification of Smart Contracts Permenev, Anton and Dimitrov, Dimitar and Tsankov, Petar and Drachsler-Cohen, Dana and Vechev, Martin. 2019
1
102.Manticore: A User-Friendly Symbolic Execution Framework for Binaries and Smart Contracts Mossberg, Mark and Manzano, Felipe and Hennenfent, Eric and Groce, Alex and Grieco, Gustavo and Feist, Josselin and Brunson, Trent and Dinaburg, Artem. 2019
1
103.Broken Metre: Attacking Resource Metering in EVM Daniel Perez and Benjamin Livshits. 2019
1
104.Practical Mutation Testing for Smart Contracts Honig, Joran J and Everts, Maarten H and Huisman, Marieke. 2019
1
105.Smart Contract Interactions in Coq Nielsen, Jakob Botsch and Spitters, Bas. 2019
1
106.IELE: a rigorously designed language and tool ecosystem for the blockchain Kasampalis, Theodoros and Guth, Dwight and Moore, Brandon and Șerb\uanuț\ua, Traian Florin and Zhang, Yi and Filaretti, Daniele and Șerb\uanuț\ua, Virgil and Johnson, Ralph and Ro\csu, Grigore. 2019
1
107.Unraveling recursion: compiling an IR with recursion to system F Jones, Michael Peyton and Gkoumas, Vasilis and Kireev, Roman and MacKenzie, Kenneth and Nester, Chad and Wadler, Philip. 2019
1
108.Contractvm: decentralized applications on Bitcoin Bartoletti, Massimo and Gessa, Davide and Podda, Alessandro Sebastian. 2018
0
109.SAFEVM: A Safety Verifier for Ethereum Smart Contracts Albert, Elvira and Correas, Jes\'us and Gordillo, Pablo and Rom\'an-D\'\iez, Guillermo and Rubio, Albert. 2019
0
110.A minimal core calculus for Solidity contracts Bartoletti, Massimo and Galletta, Letterio and Murgia, Maurizio. 2019
0
111.VeriSmart: A Highly Precise Safety Verifier for Ethereum Smart Contracts So, Sunbeom and Lee, Myungho and Park, Jisu and Lee, Heejo and Oh, Hakjoo. 2019
0
112.The Rush Dilemma: Attacking and Repairing Smart Contracts on Forking Blockchains Vincenzo Botta and Daniele Friolo and Daniele Venturi and Ivan Visconti. 2019
0
113.Proof-Carrying Smart Contracts Dickerson, Thomas and Gazzillo, Paul and Herlihy, Maurice and Saraph, Vikram and Koskinen, Eric. 2018
0
114.Learning to Fuzz from Symbolic Execution with Application to Smart Contracts He, Jingxuan and Balunovi\'c, Mislav and Ambroladze, Nodar and Tsankov, Petar and Vechev, Martin. 2019
0
115.zkay: Specifying and Enforcing Data Privacy in Smart Contracts Steffen, Samuel and Bichsel, Benjamin and Gersbach, Mario and Melchior, Noa and Tsankov, Petar and Vechev, Martin. 2019
0
116.Gas limit aware mutation testing of smart contracts at scale Hartel, Pieter and Schumi, Richard. 2019
0
117.Kachina--Foundations of Private Smart Contracts Kerber, Thomas and Kiayias, Aggelos and Kohlweiss, Markulf. 2019
0
118.Deviant: A Mutation Testing Tool for Solidity Smart Contracts Chapman, Patrick. 2019
0
119.WaterCarver: Anonymous Confidential Blockchain System based on Account Model Jiajun Xin and Pei Huang and Lei Chen and Xin Lai and Xiao Zhang and Wulu Li and Yongcan Wang. 2019
0