A curated list of papers ordered by number of citations. Last updated 2020-02-25

#Title
Citations
1.Ethereum: a secure decentralised generalised transaction ledger Wood, Gavin. 2014
2228
2.Blockchains and smart contracts for the internet of things Christidis, Konstantinos and Devetsikiotis, Michael. 2016
1626
3.Hawk: The blockchain model of cryptography and privacy-preserving smart contracts Kosba, Ahmed and Miller, Andrew and Shi, Elaine and Wen, Zikai and Papamanthou, Charalampos. 2016
1067
4.Formalizing and securing relationships on public networks Szabo, Nick. 1997
814
5.Hyperledger fabric: a distributed operating system for permissioned blockchains Androulaki, Elli and Barger, Artem and Bortnikov, Vita and Cachin, Christian and Christidis, Konstantinos and De Caro, Angelo and Enyeart, David and Ferris, Christopher and Laventman, Gennady and Manevich, Yacov and Muralidharan, Srinivasan and Murthy, Chet and Nguyen, Binh and Sethi, Manish and Singh, Gari and Smith, Keith and Sorniotti, Alessandro and Stathakopoulou, Chrysoula and Vukolić, Marko and Weed Cocco, Sharon and Yellick, Jason. 2018
745
6.Making smart contracts smarter Luu, Loi and Chu, Duc-Hiep and Olickel, Hrishi and Saxena, Prateek and Hobor, Aquinas. 2016
698
7.A survey of attacks on ethereum smart contracts (sok) Atzei, Nicola and Bartoletti, Massimo and Cimoli, Tiziana. 2017
506
8.Step by step towards creating a safe smart contract: Lessons and insights from a cryptocurrency lab Delmolino, Kevin and Arnett, Mitchell and Kosba, Ahmed and Miller, Andrew and Shi, Elaine. 2016
335
9.Formal verification of smart contracts: Short paper Bhargavan, Karthikeyan and Delignat-Lavaud, Antoine and Fournet, C\'edric and Gollamudi, Anitha and Gonthier, Georges and Kobeissi, Nadim and Kulatova, Natalia and Rastogi, Aseem and Sibut-Pinote, Thomas and Swamy, Nikhil and others. 2016
288
10.Town crier: An authenticated data feed for smart contracts Zhang, Fan and Cecchetti, Ethan and Croman, Kyle and Juels, Ari and Shi, Elaine. 2016
263
11.An empirical analysis of smart contracts: platforms, applications, and design patterns Bartoletti, Massimo and Pompianu, Livio. 2017
218
12.Zeus: Analyzing safety of smart contracts Kalra, Sukrit and Goel, Seep and Dhawan, Mohan and Sharma, Subodh. 2018
153
13.Securify: Practical security analysis of smart contracts Tsankov, Petar and Dan, Andrei and Drachsler-Cohen, Dana and Gervais, Arthur and Buenzli, Florian and Vechev, Martin. 2018
153
14.Finding The Greedy, Prodigal, and Suicidal Contracts at Scale Nikolic, Ivica and Kolluri, Aashish and Sergey, Ilya and Saxena, Prateek and Hobor, Aquinas. 2018
145
15.Defining the ethereum virtual machine for interactive theorem provers Hirai, Yoichi. 2017
117
16.A Semantic Framework for the Security Analysis of Ethereum smart contracts Grishchenko, Ilya and Maffei, Matteo and Schneidewind, Clara. 2018
104
17.Under-optimized smart contracts devour your money Chen, Ting and Li, Xiaoqi and Luo, Xiapu and Zhang, Xiaosong. 2017
100
18.Towards Verifying Ethereum Smart Contract Bytecode in Isabelle/HOL Amani, Sidney and B\'egel, Myriam and Bortin, Maksym and Staples, Mark. 2018
90
19.Smartcheck: Static analysis of ethereum smart contracts Tikhomirov, Sergei and Voskresenskaya, Ekaterina and Ivanitskiy, Ivan and Takhaviev, Ramil and Marchenko, Evgeny and Alexandrov, Yaroslav. 2018
71
20.Ekiden: A Platform for Confidentiality-Preserving, Trustworthy, and Performant Smart Contracts Cheng, Raymond and Zhang, Fan and Kos, Jernej and He, Warren and Hynes, Nicholas and Johnson, Noah and Juels, Ari and Miller, Andrew and Song, Dawn. 2019
70
21.ContractFuzzer: fuzzing smart contracts for vulnerability detection Jiang, Bo and Liu, Ye and Chan, WK. 2018
69
22.Online detection of effectively callback free objects with applications to smart contracts Grossman, Shelly and Abraham, Ittai and Golan-Gueta, Guy and Michalevsky, Yan and Rinetzky, Noam and Sagiv, Mooly and Zohar, Yoni. 2017
64
23.SCPKI: A smart contract-based PKI and identity system Al-Bassam, Mustafa. 2017
63
24.teether: Gnawing at ethereum to automatically exploit smart contracts Krupp, Johannes and Rossow, Christian. 2018
62
25.Madmax: Surviving out-of-gas conditions in ethereum smart contracts Grech, Neville and Kong, Michael and Jurisevic, Anton and Brent, Lexi and Scholz, Bernhard and Smaragdakis, Yannis. 2018
61
26.A concurrent perspective on smart contracts Sergey, Ilya and Hobor, Aquinas. 2017
60
27.KEVM: A Complete Semantics of the Ethereum Virtual Machine Hildenbrandt, Everett and Saxena, Manasvi and Zhu, Xiaoran and Rodrigues, Nishant and Daian, Philip and Guth, Dwight and Rosu, Grigore. 2017
58
28.Smart contracts: security patterns in the ethereum ecosystem and solidity Wohrer, Maximilian and Zdun, Uwe. 2018
58
29.A scalable verification solution for blockchains Teutsch, Jason and Reitwie\ssner, Christian. 2017
57
30.Designing secure Ethereum smart contracts: A finite state machine based approach Mavridou, Anastasia and Laszka, Aron. 2017
57
31.Scilla: a Smart Contract Intermediate-Level LAnguage Sergey, Ilya and Kumar, Amrit and Hobor, Aquinas. 2018
54
32.Simplicity: A new language for blockchains O'Connor, Russell. 2017
51
33.Vandal: A scalable security analysis framework for smart contracts Brent, Lexi and Jurisevic, Anton and Kong, Michael and Liu, Eric and Gauthier, Francois and Gramoli, Vincent and Holz, Ralph and Scholz, Bernhard. 2018
49
34.Validation of decentralised smart contracts through game theory and formal methods Bigi, Giancarlo and Bracciali, Andrea and Meacci, Giovanni and Tuosto, Emilio. 2015
40
35.Setting standards for altering and undoing smart contracts Marino, Bill and Juels, Ari. 2016
40
36.Empirical Vulnerability Analysis of Automated Smart Contracts Security Testing on Blockchains Parizi, Reza M and Dehghantanha, Ali and Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond and Singh, Amritraj. 2018
38
37.Arbitrum: scalable, private smart contracts Kalodner, Harry and Goldfeder, Steven and Chen, Xiaoqi and Weinberg, S Matthew and Felten, Edward W. 2018
38
38.0x: An open protocol for decentralized exchange on the Ethereum blockchain Warren, Will and Bandeali, Amir. 2017
37
39.FairSwap: How to fairly exchange digital goods Dziembowski, Stefan and Eckey, Lisa and Faust, Sebastian. 2018
37
40.Obsidian: a safer blockchain programming language Coblenz, Michael. 2017
34
41.Erays: Reverse engineering ethereum’s opaque smart contracts Zhou, Yi and Kumar, Deepak and Bakshi, Surya and Mason, Joshua and Miller, Andrew and Bailey, Michael. 2018
32
42.Smart contracts make bitcoin mining pools vulnerable Velner, Yaron and Teutsch, Jason and Luu, Loi. 2017
31
43.Bitcoin covenants M\"oser, Malte and Eyal, Ittay and Sirer, Emin G\"un. 2016
30
44.Smashing ethereum smart contracts for fun and real profit Mueller, Bernhard. 2018
30
45.M{\"o}bius: Trustless Tumbling for Transaction Privacy Sarah Meiklejohn and Rebekah Mercer. 2017
29
46.Formal verification of smart contracts based on users and blockchain behaviors models Abdellatif, Tesnim and Brousmiche, Kei-L\'eo. 2018
29
47.Ethereum smart contracts: Security vulnerabilities and security tools Dika, Ardit. 2017
28
48.Osiris: Hunting for integer bugs in ethereum smart contracts Torres, Christof Ferreira and Sch\"utte, Julian and others. 2018
27
49.A formal verification tool for Ethereum VM Bytecode Park, Daejun and Zhang, Yi and Saxena, Manasvi and Daian, Philip and Ro\csu, Grigore. 2018
26
50.EthIR: A Framework for High-Level Analysis of Ethereum Bytecode Albert, Elvira and Gordillo, Pablo and Livshits, Benjamin and Rubio, Albert and Sergey, Ilya. 2018
23
51.Proofs-of-delay and randomness beacons in ethereum B\"unz, Benedikt and Goldfeder, Steven and Bonneau, Joseph. 2017
23
52.BitML: a calculus for Bitcoin smart contracts Massimo Bartoletti and Roberto Zunino. 2018
22
53.Raziel: private and verifiable smart contracts on blockchains S\'anchez, David Cerezo. 2018
22
54.Zether: Towards Privacy in a Smart Contract World. B\"unz, Benedikt and Agrawal, Shashank and Zamani, Mahdi and Boneh, Dan. 2019
21
55.Constant-deposit multiparty lotteries on Bitcoin Bartoletti, Massimo and Zunino, Roberto. 2017
21
56.Porosity: A decompiler for blockchain-based smart contracts bytecode Suiche, Matt. 2017
21
57.Formal verification of Deed contract in Ethereum name service Hirai, Yoichi. 2016
19
58.Towards safer smart contracts: A survey of languages and verification methods Harz, Dominik and Knottenbelt, William. 2018
19
59.Enter the Hydra: Towards Principled Bug Bounties and Exploit-Resistant Smart Contracts Breidenbach, Lorenz and Cornell Tech, IC and Daian, Philip and Tramer, Florian and Juels, Ari. 2018
16
60.Flash Boys 2.0: Frontrunning, Transaction Reordering, and Consensus Instability in Decentralized Exchanges Daian, Philip and Goldfeder, Steven and Kell, Tyler and Li, Yunqi and Zhao, Xueyuan and Bentov, Iddo and Breidenbach, Lorenz and Juels, Ari. 2019
16
61.Model-Checking of Smart Contracts Nehai, Zeinab and Piriou, Pierre-Yves and Daumas, Frederic. 2018
15
62.Zexe: Enabling decentralized private computation Bowe, S and Chiesa, A and Green, M and Miers, I and Mishra, P and Wu, H. 2018
15
63.Sereum: Protecting Existing Smart Contracts Against Re-Entrancy Attacks Rodler, Michael and Li, Wenting and Karame, Ghassan O and Davi, Lucas. 2018
15
64.Smt-based verification of solidity smart contracts Alt, Leonardo and Reitwiessner, Christian. 2018
15
65.Analyzing Ethereum's Contract Topology Kiffer, Lucianna and Levin, Dave and Mislove, Alan. 2018
14
66.Marlowe: Financial contracts on blockchain Seijas, Pablo Lamela and Thompson, Simon. 2018
14
67.Proof-of-Work Sidechains Kiayias, Aggelos and Zindros, Dionysis. 2018
13
68.Exploiting the laws of order in smart contracts Kolluri, Aashish and Nikolic, Ivica and Sergey, Ilya and Hobor, Aquinas and Saxena, Prateek. 2019
13
69.Enhancing Bitcoin transactions with covenants O’Connor, Russell and Piekarska, Marta. 2017
12
70.VeriSolid: Correct-by-Design Smart Contracts for Ethereum Mavridou, Anastasia and Laszka, Aron and Stachtiari, Emmanouela and Dubey, Abhishek. 2019
11
71.Smart contracts and opportunities for formal methods Miller, Andrew and Cai, Zhicheng and Jha, Somesh. 2018
11
72.Slither: a static analysis framework for smart contracts Feist, Josselin and Grieco, Gustavo and Groce, Alex. 2019
11
73.A survey of tools for analyzing ethereum smart contracts Di Angelo, Monika and Salzer, Gernot. 2019
11
74.VerX: Safety Verification of Smart Contracts Permenev, Anton and Dimitrov, Dimitar and Tsankov, Petar and Drachsler-Cohen, Dana and Vechev, Martin. 2019
10
75.GASTAP: A Gas Analyzer for Smart Contracts Albert, Elvira and Gordillo, Pablo and Rubio, Albert and Sergey, Ilya. 2018
9
76.Monitoring smart contracts: Contractlarva and open challenges beyond Azzopardi, Shaun and Ellul, Joshua and Pace, Gordon J. 2018
9
77.Fun with Bitcoin smart contracts Massimo Bartoletti and Tiziana Cimoli and Roberto Zunino. 2018
8
78.Temporal Properties of Smart Contracts Sergey, Ilya and Kumar, Amrit and Hobor, Aquinas. 2018
8
79.Loopring: A decentralized token exchange protocol Wang, Daniel and Zhou, Jay and Wang, Alex and Finestone, Matthew. 2018
8
80.Precise Attack Synthesis for Smart Contracts Feng, Yu and Torlak, Emina and Bodik, Rastislav. 2019
7
81.FastKitten: Practical Smart Contracts on Bitcoin Das, Poulami and Eckey, Lisa and Frassetto, Tommaso and Gens, David and Host\'akov\'a, Kristina and Jauernig, Patrick and Faust, Sebastian and Sadeghi, Ahmad-Reza. 2019
7
82.EtherTrust: Sound static analysis of ethereum bytecode Grishchenko, Ilya and Maffei, Matteo and Schneidewind, Clara. 2018
7
83.Manticore: A User-Friendly Symbolic Execution Framework for Binaries and Smart Contracts Mossberg, Mark and Manzano, Felipe and Hennenfent, Eric and Groce, Alex and Grieco, Gustavo and Feist, Josselin and Brunson, Trent and Dinaburg, Artem. 2019
6
84.Safer smart contract programming with Scilla Sergey, Ilya and Nagaraj, Vaivaswatha and Johannsen, Jacob and Kumar, Amrit and Trunov, Anton and Hao, Ken Chan Guan. 2019
6
85.Executable Operational Semantics of Solidity Jiao, Jiao and Kan, Shuanglong and Lin, Shang-Wei and Sanan, David and Liu, Yang and Sun, Jun. 2018
5
86.Contracts over Smart Contracts: Recovering from Violations Dynamically Colombo, Christian and Ellul, Joshua and Pace, Gordon J. 2018
5
87.Verifying liquidity of Bitcoin contracts Bartoletti, Massimo and Zunino, Roberto. 2018
5
88.Self-reproducing coins as universal turing machine Chepurnoy, Alexander and Kharin, Vasily and Meshkov, Dmitry. 2018
5
89.The Art of The Scam: Demystifying Honeypots in Ethereum Smart Contracts Torres, Christof Ferreira and Steichen, Mathis. 2019
4
90.SoK: Transparent Dishonesty: front-running attacks on Blockchain Eskandari, Shayan and Moosavi, Seyedehmahsa and Clark, Jeremy. 2019
4
91.solc-verify: A Modular Verifier for Solidity Smart Contracts Hajdu, \'Akos and Jovanovi\'c, Dejan. 2019
4
92.Beigepaper: An Ethereum Technical Specification Dameron, Micah. 2017
4
93.Broken Metre: Attacking Resource Metering in EVM Daniel Perez and Benjamin Livshits. 2019
4
94.Formal Specification and Verification of Smart Contracts for Azure Blockchain Lahiri, Shuvendu K and Chen, Shuo and Wang, Yuepeng and Dillig, Isil. 2018
4
95.Smartanvil: Open-source tool suite for smart contract analysis Ducasse, St\'ephane and Rocha, Henrique and Bragagnolo, Santiago and Denker, Marcus and Francomme, Cl\'ement. 2019
4
96.Running on Fumes Albert, Elvira and Gordillo, Pablo and Rubio, Albert and Sergey, Ilya. 2019
4
97.Harvey: A greybox fuzzer for smart contracts W\"ustholz, Valentin and Christakis, Maria. 2019
4
98.Towards a Smart Contract-based, Decentralized, Public-Key Infrastructure Patsonakis, Christos and Samari, Katerina and Roussopoulos, Mema and Kiayias, Aggelos. 2017
3
99.On the specification and verification of atomic swap smart contracts⋆ van der Meyden, Ron. 2018
3
100.Pay-To-Win: Incentive Attacks on Proof-of-Work Cryptocurrencies Aljosha Judmayer and Nicholas Stifter and Alexei Zamyatin and Itay Tsabary and Ittay Eyal and Peter Gazi and Sarah Meiklejohn and Edgar Weippl. 2019
3
101.Mi-Cho-Coq, a framework for certifying Tezos Smart Contracts Bernardo, Bruno and Cauderlier, Rapha\"el and Hu, Zhenlei and Pesin, Basile and Tesson, Julien. 2019
3
102.TEX - A Securely Scalable Trustless Exchange Rami Khalil and Arthur Gervais and Guillaume Felley. 2019
2
103.ACE: Asynchronous and Concurrent Execution of Complex Smart Contracts Karl Wüst and Sinisa Matetic and Silvan Egli and Kari Kostiainen and Srdjan Capkun. 2019
2
104.A minimal core calculus for Solidity contracts Bartoletti, Massimo and Galletta, Letterio and Murgia, Maurizio. 2019
2
105.Practical Mutation Testing for Smart Contracts Honig, Joran J and Everts, Maarten H and Huisman, Marieke. 2019
2
106.Smart Contract Interactions in Coq Nielsen, Jakob Botsch and Spitters, Bas. 2019
2
107.Learning to Fuzz from Symbolic Execution with Application to Smart Contracts He, Jingxuan and Balunovi\'c, Mislav and Ambroladze, Nodar and Tsankov, Petar and Vechev, Martin. 2019
2
108.IELE: a rigorously designed language and tool ecosystem for the blockchain Kasampalis, Theodoros and Guth, Dwight and Moore, Brandon and Șerb\uanuț\ua, Traian Florin and Zhang, Yi and Filaretti, Daniele and Șerb\uanuț\ua, Virgil and Johnson, Ralph and Ro\csu, Grigore. 2019
2
109.Unraveling recursion: compiling an IR with recursion to system F Jones, Michael Peyton and Gkoumas, Vasilis and Kireev, Roman and MacKenzie, Kenneth and Nester, Chad and Wadler, Philip. 2019
2
110.SAFEVM: A Safety Verifier for Ethereum Smart Contracts Albert, Elvira and Correas, Jes\'us and Gordillo, Pablo and Rom\'an-D\'\iez, Guillermo and Rubio, Albert. 2019
1
111.Bitcontracts: Adding Expressive Smart Contracts to Legacy Cryptocurrencies Karl Wüst and Loris Diana and Kari Kostiainen and Ghassan Karame and Sinisa Matetic and Srdjan Capkun. 2019
1
112.VeriSmart: A Highly Precise Safety Verifier for Ethereum Smart Contracts So, Sunbeom and Lee, Myungho and Park, Jisu and Lee, Heejo and Oh, Hakjoo. 2019
1
113.Proof-Carrying Smart Contracts Dickerson, Thomas and Gazzillo, Paul and Herlihy, Maurice and Saraph, Vikram and Koskinen, Eric. 2018
1
114.zkay: Specifying and Enforcing Data Privacy in Smart Contracts Steffen, Samuel and Bichsel, Benjamin and Gersbach, Mario and Melchior, Noa and Tsankov, Petar and Vechev, Martin. 2019
1
115.What are the Actual Flaws in Important Smart Contracts (and How Can We Find Them)? Groce, Alex and Feist, Josselin and Grieco, Gustavo and Colburn, Michael. 2019
1
116.Developing secure Bitcoin contracts with BitML Atzei, Nicola and Bartoletti, Massimo and Lande, Stefano and Yoshida, Nobuko and Zunino, Roberto. 2019
1
117.SoK: unraveling Bitcoin smart contracts Nicola Atzei and Massimo Bartoletti and Tiziana Cimoli and Stefano Lande and Roberto Zunino. 2018
0
118.Contractvm: decentralized applications on Bitcoin Bartoletti, Massimo and Gessa, Davide and Podda, Alessandro Sebastian. 2018
0
119.A next-generation smart contract and decentralized application platform Buterin, Vitalik. 2014
0
120.The Rush Dilemma: Attacking and Repairing Smart Contracts on Forking Blockchains Vincenzo Botta and Daniele Friolo and Daniele Venturi and Ivan Visconti. 2019
0
121.Gas limit aware mutation testing of smart contracts at scale Hartel, Pieter and Schumi, Richard. 2019
0
122.Kachina--Foundations of Private Smart Contracts Kerber, Thomas and Kiayias, Aggelos and Kohlweiss, Markulf. 2019
0
123.Deviant: A Mutation Testing Tool for Solidity Smart Contracts Chapman, Patrick. 2019
0
124.WaterCarver: Anonymous Confidential Blockchain System based on Account Model Jiajun Xin and Pei Huang and Lei Chen and Xin Lai and Xiao Zhang and Wulu Li and Yongcan Wang. 2019
0
125.OptiSwap: Fast Optimistic Fair Exchange Lisa Eckey and Sebastian Faust and Benjamin Schlosser. 2019
0
126.Verifiable Computation using Smart Contracts Avizheh, Sepideh and Nabi, Mahmudun and Safavi-Naini, Reihaneh and Venkateswarlu K, Muni. 2019
0
127.{\AE}GIS: Smart Shielding of Smart Contracts Ferreira Torres, Christof and Baden, Mathis and Norvill, Robert and Jonker, Hugo. 2019
0
128.MPro: Combining Static and Symbolic Analysis for Scalable Testing of Smart Contract Zhang, William and Banescu, Sebastian and Pasos, Leodardo and Stewart, Steven and Ganesh, Vijay. 2019
0
129.An Alternative Paradigm for Developing and Pricing Storage on Smart Contract Platforms Patsonakis, Christos and Roussopoulos, Mema. 2019
0
130.Albert, an intermediate smart-contract language for the Tezos blockchain Bernardo, Bruno and Cauderlier, Rapha\"el and Pesin, Basile and Tesson, Julien. 2020
0
131.Reparo: Publicly Verifiable Layer to Repair Blockchains Thyagarajan, Sri Aravinda Krishnan and Bhat, Adithya and Magri, Bernardo and Tschudi, Daniel and Kate, Aniket. 2020
0
132.Bypassing Non-Outsourceable Proof-of-Work Schemes Using Collateralized Smart Contracts Alexander Chepurnoy and Amitabh Saxena. 2020
0
133.Formal specification of a security framework for smart contracts Mandrykin, Mikhail and O'Shannessy, Jake and Payne, Jacob and Shchepetkov, Ilya. 2020
0
134.GASOL: Gas Analysis and Optimization for Ethereum Smart Contracts Albert, Elvira and Correas, Jes\'us and Gordillo, Pablo and Rom\'an-D\'\iez, Guillermo and Rubio, Albert. 2019
0
135.LazyLedger: A Distributed Data Availability Ledger With Client-Side Smart Contracts Al-Bassam, Mustafa. 2019
0
136.A Smart Contract Refereed Data Retrieval Protocol with a Provably Low Collateral Requirement James Shook and Scott Simon and Peter Mell. 2019
0
137.ConCert: A Smart Contract Certification Framework in Coq Annenkov, Danil and Nielsen, Jakob Botsch and Spitters, Bas. 2020
0
138.Ethna: Channel Network with Dynamic Internal Payment Splitting Stefan Dziembowski and Paweł Kędzior. 2020
0
139.Lower Bounds for Off-Chain Protocols: Exploring the Limits of Plasma Stefan Dziembowski and Grzegorz Fabiański and Sebastian Faust and Siavash Riahi. 2020
0
140.Formalising and verifying smart contracts with Solidifier: a bounded model checker for Solidity Antonino, Pedro and Roscoe, AW. 2020
0
141.Towards declarative smart contracts Purnell, Kevin and Schwitter, Rolf. 2019
0