A curated list of papers ordered by number of citations. Last updated 2020-02-25

1.Hyperledger fabric: a distributed operating system for permissioned blockchains Androulaki, Elli and Barger, Artem and Bortnikov, Vita and Cachin, Christian and Christidis, Konstantinos and De Caro, Angelo and Enyeart, David and Ferris, Christopher and Laventman, Gennady and Manevich, Yacov and Muralidharan, Srinivasan and Murthy, Chet and Nguyen, Binh and Sethi, Manish and Singh, Gari and Smith, Keith and Sorniotti, Alessandro and Stathakopoulou, Chrysoula and Vukolić, Marko and Weed Cocco, Sharon and Yellick, Jason. 2018
2.On Scaling Decentralized Blockchains Croman, Kyle and Decker, Christian and Eyal, Ittay and Gencer, Adem Efe and Juels, Ari and Kosba, Ahmed and Miller, Andrew and Saxena, Prateek and Shi, Elaine and Gün Sirer, Emin. 2016
3.The quest for scalable blockchain fabric: Proof-of-work vs. BFT replication Vukolić, Marko. 2015
4.The bitcoin lightning network: Scalable off-chain instant payments Poon, Joseph and Dryja, Thaddeus. 2016
5.A secure sharding protocol for open blockchains Luu, Loi and Narayanan, Viswesh and Zheng, Chaodong and Baweja, Kunal and Gilbert, Seth and Saxena, Prateek. 2016
6.Omniledger: A secure, scale-out, decentralized ledger via sharding Kokoris-Kogias, Eleftherios and Jovanovic, Philipp and Gasser, Linus and Gailly, Nicolas and Syta, Ewa and Ford, Bryan. 2018
7.Hybrid consensus: Efficient consensus in the permissionless model Pass, Rafael and Shi, Elaine. 2017
8.Plasma: Scalable Autonomous Smart Contracts Poon, Joseph and Buterin, Vitalik. 2017
9.Rapidchain: Scaling blockchain via full sharding Zamani, Mahdi and Movahedi, Mahnush and Raykova, Mariana. 2018
10.Chainspace: A Sharded Smart Contracts Platform Al-Bassam, Mustafa and Sonnino, Alberto and Bano, Shehar and Hrycyszyn, Dave and Danezis, George. 2017
11.Scp: A computationally-scalable byzantine consensus protocol for blockchains Luu, Loi and Narayanan, Viswesh and Baweja, Kunal and Zheng, Chaodong and Gilbert, Seth and Saxena, Prateek. 2015
12.A scalable verification solution for blockchains Teutsch, Jason and Reitwie\ssner, Christian. 2017
13.Arbitrum: scalable, private smart contracts Kalodner, Harry and Goldfeder, Steven and Chen, Xiaoqi and Weinberg, S Matthew and Felten, Edward W. 2018
14.Short paper: Service-oriented sharding for blockchains Gencer, Adem Efe and van Renesse, Robbert and Sirer, Emin G\"un. 2017
15.Rethinking Large-Scale Consensus Rafael Pass and Elaine Shi. 2018
16.Deconstructing the Blockchain to Approach Physical Limits Bagaria, Vivek and Kannan, Sreeram and Tse, David and Fanti, Giulia and Viswanath, Pramod. 2018
17.Towards scaling blockchain systems via sharding Dang, Hung and Dinh, Tien Tuan Anh and Loghin, Dumitrel and Chang, Ee-Chien and Lin, Qian and Ooi, Beng Chin. 2019
18.Service-Oriented Sharding with Aspen Gencer, Adem Efe and van Renesse, Robbert and Sirer, Emin G\"un. 2016
19.NOCUST--A Non-Custodial 2 nd-Layer Financial Intermediary Khalil, Rami and Gervais, Arthur. 2018
20.Teechain: Reducing storage costs on the blockchain with offline payment channels Lind, Joshua and Naor, Oded and Eyal, Ittay and Kelbert, Florian and Pietzuch, Peter and Sirer, Emin G\"un. 2018
21.Polyshard: Coded sharding achieves linearly scaling efficiency and security simultaneously Li, Songze and Yu, Mingchao and Avestimehr, Salman and Kannan, Sreeram and Viswanath, Pramod. 2018
22.Parallel Chains: Improving Throughput and Latency of Blockchain Protocols via Parallel Composition Fitzi, Matthias and Gazi, Peter and Kiayias, Aggelos and Russell, Alexander. 2018
23.Blockclique: scaling blockchains through transaction sharding in a multithreaded block graph Forestier, S\'ebastien. 2018
24.Z-Channel: Scalable and Efficient Scheme in Zerocash Yuncong Zhang and Yu Long and Zhen Liu and Zhiqiang Liu and Dawu Gu. 2017
25.Fraud Proofs: Maximising Light Client Security and Scaling Blockchains with Dishonest Majorities Al-Bassam, Mustafa and Sonnino, Alberto and Buterin, Vitalik. 2018
26.OHIE: Blockchain Scaling Made Simple Yu, Haifeng and Nikolic, Ivica and Hou, Ruomu and Saxena, Prateek. 2018
27.A Scalable Proof-of-Stake Blockchain in the Open Setting Fan, Lei and Zhou, Hong-Sheng and Katz, Jonathan. 2018
28.NOCUST--A Securely Scalable Commit-Chain Khalil, Rami and Gervais, Arthur and Felley, Guillaume. 2019
29.You sank my battleship! A case study to evaluate state channels as a scaling solution for cryptocurrencies McCorry, Patrick and Buckland, Chris and Bakshi, Surya and W\"ust, Karl and Miller, Andrew. 2018
30.Replay Attacks and Defenses against Cross-shard Consensus in Sharded Distributed Ledgers Sonnino, Alberto and Bano, Shehar and Al-Bassam, Mustafa and Danezis, George. 2019
31.Prism: Deconstructing the Blockchain to Approach Physical Limits Bagaria, Vivek and Kannan, Sreeram and Tse, David and Fanti, Giulia and Viswanath, Pramod. 2019
32.piChain: When a Blockchain meets Paxos Burchert, Conrad and Wattenhofer, Roger. 2018
33.Scalable and Probabilistic Leaderless BFT Consensus through Metastability Rocket, Team and Yin, Maofan and Sekniqi, Kevin and van Renesse, Robbert and Sirer, Emin G\"un. 2019
34.Ostraka: Secure Blockchain Scaling by Node Sharding Alex Manuskin and Michael Mirkin and Ittay Eyal. 2019
35.SoK: Sharding on Blockchain Gang Wang and Zhijie Jerry Shi and Mark Nixon and Song Han. 2019
36.Sharding PoW-based Blockchains via Proofs of Knowledge Frederik Armknecht and Jens-Matthias Bohli and Ghassan O. Karame and Wenting Li. 2017
37.On Sharding Permissioned Blockchains. Amiri, Mohammad Javad and Agrawal, Divyakant. 2019
38.Prism: Scaling Bitcoin by 10,000 x Yang, Lei and Bagaria, Vivek and Wang, Gerui and Alizadeh, Mohammad and Tse, David and Fanti, Giulia and Viswanath, Pramod. 2019
39.OptChain: Optimal Transactions Placement for Scalable Blockchain Sharding Nguyen, Lan N and Nguyen, TD and Dinh, Thang N and Thai, My T. 2019
40.Divide and Scale: Formalization of Distributed Ledger Sharding Protocols Avarikioti, Georgia and Kokoris-Kogias, Eleftherios and Wattenhofer, Roger. 2019
41.Fractal: A New Paradigm for High-Performance Proof-of-Stake Blockchains Zhou, Hong-Sheng. 2019
42.Hydra: A Multiple Blockchain Protocol for Improving Transaction Throughput G\"undlach, Rowel and Hoepman, Jaap-Henk and van der Hofstad, Remco and Koens, Tommy and Meijer, Stijn. 2019
43.Proof-of-Stake Blockchain Protocols with Near-Optimal Throughput Matthias Fitzi and Peter Gaži and Aggelos Kiayias and Alexander Russell. 2020