A curated list of papers ordered by number of citations. Last updated 2020-05-28

#Title
Citations
1.Ethereum: a secure decentralised generalised transaction ledger Wood, Gavin. 2014
2538
2.A next-generation smart contract and decentralized application platform Buterin, Vitalik. 2014
1099
3.A survey of attacks on ethereum smart contracts (sok) Atzei, Nicola and Bartoletti, Massimo and Cimoli, Tiziana. 2017
573
4.Casper the friendly finality gadget Buterin, Vitalik and Griffith, Virgil. 2017
239
5.A smart contract for boardroom voting with maximum voter privacy McCorry, Patrick and Shahandashti, Siamak F and Hao, Feng. 2017
204
6.Plasma: Scalable Autonomous Smart Contracts Poon, Joseph and Buterin, Vitalik. 2017
178
7.Finding The Greedy, Prodigal, and Suicidal Contracts at Scale Nikolic, Ivica and Kolluri, Aashish and Sergey, Ilya and Saxena, Prateek and Hobor, Aquinas. 2018
174
8.Decentralization in bitcoin and ethereum networks Gencer, Adem Efe and Basu, Soumya and Eyal, Ittay and Van Renesse, Robbert and Sirer, Emin G\"un. 2018
146
9.Defining the ethereum virtual machine for interactive theorem provers Hirai, Yoichi. 2017
132
10.A Semantic Framework for the Security Analysis of Ethereum smart contracts Grishchenko, Ilya and Maffei, Matteo and Schneidewind, Clara. 2018
120
11.Mastering ethereum: building smart contracts and dapps Antonopoulos, Andreas M and Wood, Gavin. 2018
115
12.Proof-of-Burn Kostis Karantias and Aggelos Kiayias and Dionysis Zindros. 2019
114
13.Towards Verifying Ethereum Smart Contract Bytecode in Isabelle/HOL Amani, Sidney and B\'egel, Myriam and Bortin, Maksym and Staples, Mark. 2018
104
14.Smartcheck: Static analysis of ethereum smart contracts Tikhomirov, Sergei and Voskresenskaya, Ekaterina and Ivanitskiy, Ivan and Takhaviev, Ramil and Marchenko, Evgeny and Alexandrov, Yaroslav. 2018
95
15.Madmax: Surviving out-of-gas conditions in ethereum smart contracts Grech, Neville and Kong, Michael and Jurisevic, Anton and Brent, Lexi and Scholz, Bernhard and Smaragdakis, Yannis. 2018
81
16.Online detection of effectively callback free objects with applications to smart contracts Grossman, Shelly and Abraham, Ittai and Golan-Gueta, Guy and Michalevsky, Yan and Rinetzky, Noam and Sagiv, Mooly and Zohar, Yoni. 2017
78
17.teether: Gnawing at ethereum to automatically exploit smart contracts Krupp, Johannes and Rossow, Christian. 2018
75
18.Smart contracts: security patterns in the ethereum ecosystem and solidity Wohrer, Maximilian and Zdun, Uwe. 2018
73
19.A scalable verification solution for blockchains Teutsch, Jason and Reitwie\ssner, Christian. 2017
69
20.Vandal: A scalable security analysis framework for smart contracts Brent, Lexi and Jurisevic, Anton and Kong, Michael and Liu, Eric and Gauthier, Francois and Gramoli, Vincent and Holz, Ralph and Scholz, Bernhard. 2018
60
21.Simplicity: A new language for blockchains O'Connor, Russell. 2017
52
22.EthIKS: Using Ethereum to audit a CONIKS key transparency log Bonneau, Joseph. 2016
50
23.Low-Resource Eclipse Attacks on Ethereum’s Peer-to-Peer Network Marcus, Yuval and Heilman, Ethan and Goldberg, Sharon. 2018
46
24.Setting standards for altering and undoing smart contracts Marino, Bill and Juels, Ari. 2016
45
25.0x: An open protocol for decentralized exchange on the Ethereum blockchain Warren, Will and Bandeali, Amir. 2017
40
26.Osiris: Hunting for integer bugs in ethereum smart contracts Torres, Christof Ferreira and Sch\"utte, Julian and others. 2018
39
27.M{\"o}bius: Trustless Tumbling for Transaction Privacy Sarah Meiklejohn and Rebekah Mercer. 2017
35
28.Zether: Towards Privacy in a Smart Contract World. B\"unz, Benedikt and Agrawal, Shashank and Zamani, Mahdi and Boneh, Dan. 2019
33
29.EthIR: A Framework for High-Level Analysis of Ethereum Bytecode Albert, Elvira and Gordillo, Pablo and Livshits, Benjamin and Rubio, Albert and Sergey, Ilya. 2018
31
30.Smashing ethereum smart contracts for fun and real profit Mueller, Bernhard. 2018
31
31.Zero-Collateral Lotteries in Bitcoin and Ethereum Miller, Andrew and Bentov, Iddo. 2016
30
32.A formal verification tool for Ethereum VM Bytecode Park, Daejun and Zhang, Yi and Saxena, Manasvi and Daian, Philip and Ro\csu, Grigore. 2018
29
33.Ethereum smart contracts: Security vulnerabilities and security tools Dika, Ardit. 2017
29
34.ZoKrates - Scalable Privacy-Preserving Off-Chain Computations Jacob Eberhardt and Stefan Tai. 2018
27
35.Proofs-of-delay and randomness beacons in ethereum B\"unz, Benedikt and Goldfeder, Steven and Bonneau, Joseph. 2017
25
36.Porosity: A decompiler for blockchain-based smart contracts bytecode Suiche, Matt. 2017
25
37.Sereum: Protecting Existing Smart Contracts Against Re-Entrancy Attacks Rodler, Michael and Li, Wenting and Karame, Ghassan O and Davi, Lucas. 2018
24
38.Exploiting the laws of order in smart contracts Kolluri, Aashish and Nikolic, Ivica and Sergey, Ilya and Hobor, Aquinas and Saxena, Prateek. 2019
23
39.Coconut: Threshold Issuance Selective Disclosure Credentials with Applications to Distributed Ledgers Sonnino, Alberto and Al-Bassam, Mustafa and Bano, Shehar and Danezis, George. 2018
22
40.Flash Boys 2.0: Frontrunning, Transaction Reordering, and Consensus Instability in Decentralized Exchanges Daian, Philip and Goldfeder, Steven and Kell, Tyler and Li, Yunqi and Zhao, Xueyuan and Bentov, Iddo and Breidenbach, Lorenz and Juels, Ari. 2019
20
41.VerX: Safety Verification of Smart Contracts Permenev, Anton and Dimitrov, Dimitar and Tsankov, Petar and Drachsler-Cohen, Dana and Vechev, Martin. 2019
18
42.Analyzing Ethereum's Contract Topology Kiffer, Lucianna and Levin, Dave and Mislove, Alan. 2018
18
43.Model-Checking of Smart Contracts Nehai, Zeinab and Piriou, Pierre-Yves and Daumas, Frederic. 2018
17
44.Smt-based verification of solidity smart contracts Alt, Leonardo and Reitwiessner, Christian. 2018
17
45.A survey of tools for analyzing ethereum smart contracts Di Angelo, Monika and Salzer, Gernot. 2019
17
46.Slither: a static analysis framework for smart contracts Feist, Josselin and Grieco, Gustavo and Groce, Alex. 2019
16
47.VeriSolid: Correct-by-Design Smart Contracts for Ethereum Mavridou, Anastasia and Laszka, Aron and Stachtiari, Emmanouela and Dubey, Abhishek. 2019
14
48.Casper the friendly ghost: A correct by construction blockchain consensus protocol Zamfir, Vlad. 2017
14
49.Incentives in Ethereum's Hybrid Casper Protocol Buterin, Vitalik and Reijsbergen, Daniel and Leonardos, Stefanos and Piliouras, Georgios. 2019
14
50.Ethereum Query Language Bragagnolo, Santiago and Rocha, Henrique and Denker, Marcus and Ducasse, St\'ephane. 2018
13
51.Manticore: A User-Friendly Symbolic Execution Framework for Binaries and Smart Contracts Mossberg, Mark and Manzano, Felipe and Hennenfent, Eric and Groce, Alex and Grieco, Gustavo and Feist, Josselin and Brunson, Trent and Dinaburg, Artem. 2019
13
52.Flyclient: Super-Light Clients for Cryptocurrencies. B\"unz, Benedikt and Kiffer, Lucianna and Luu, Loi and Zamani, Mahdi. 2019
12
53.Biased Nonce Sense: Lattice Attacks against Weak ECDSA Signatures in Cryptocurrencies Breitner, Joachim and Heninger, Nadia. 2019
11
54.Monitoring smart contracts: Contractlarva and open challenges beyond Azzopardi, Shaun and Ellul, Joshua and Pace, Gordon J. 2018
10
55.Loopring: A decentralized token exchange protocol Wang, Daniel and Zhou, Jay and Wang, Alex and Finestone, Matthew. 2018
9
56.Rootstock: Bitcoin powered smart contracts Lerner, S Demian. 2015
9
57.EtherTrust: Sound static analysis of ethereum bytecode Grishchenko, Ilya and Maffei, Matteo and Schneidewind, Clara. 2018
9
58.Learning to Fuzz from Symbolic Execution with Application to Smart Contracts He, Jingxuan and Balunovi\'c, Mislav and Ambroladze, Nodar and Tsankov, Petar and Vechev, Martin. 2019
8
59.Empirically Analyzing Ethereum's Gas Mechanism Yang, Renlord and Murray, Toby and Rimba, Paul and Parampalli, Udaya. 2019
7
60.Tracing Transactions Across Cryptocurrency Ledgers Yousaf, Haaroon and Kappos, George and Meiklejohn, Sarah. 2018
6
61.SoK: Transparent Dishonesty: front-running attacks on Blockchain Eskandari, Shayan and Moosavi, Seyedehmahsa and Clark, Jeremy. 2019
6
62.The Aztec Protocol Zachary J., Williamson. 2018
6
63.Broken Metre: Attacking Resource Metering in EVM Daniel Perez and Benjamin Livshits. 2019
6
64.You sank my battleship! A case study to evaluate state channels as a scaling solution for cryptocurrencies McCorry, Patrick and Buckland, Chris and Bakshi, Surya and W\"ust, Karl and Miller, Andrew. 2018
5
65.solc-verify: A Modular Verifier for Solidity Smart Contracts Hajdu, \'Akos and Jovanovi\'c, Dejan. 2019
5
66.Incentives in casper the friendly finality gadget Buterin, Vitalik. 2017
5
67.Running on Fumes Albert, Elvira and Gordillo, Pablo and Rubio, Albert and Sergey, Ilya. 2019
5
68.Paralysis Proofs: Safe Access-Structure Updates for Cryptocurrencies and More Fan Zhang and Philip Daian and Iddo Bentov and Ari Juels. 2018
4
69.MixEth: efficient, trustless coin mixing service for Ethereum Istv\'an Andr'\as Seres and D ́aniel A. Nagy and Chris Buckland, and \'Peter Burcsi. 2019
4
70.Beigepaper: An Ethereum Technical Specification Dameron, Micah. 2017
4
71.IELE: a rigorously designed language and tool ecosystem for the blockchain Kasampalis, Theodoros and Guth, Dwight and Moore, Brandon and Șerb\uanuț\ua, Traian Florin and Zhang, Yi and Filaretti, Daniele and Șerb\uanuț\ua, Virgil and Johnson, Ralph and Ro\csu, Grigore. 2019
4
72.A minimal core calculus for Solidity contracts Bartoletti, Massimo and Galletta, Letterio and Murgia, Maurizio. 2019
3
73.ETHDKG: Distributed Key Generation with Ethereum Smart Contracts Philipp Schindler and Aljosha Judmayer and Nicholas Stifter and Edgar Weippl. 2019
3
74.ShareLock: Mixing for Cryptocurrencies from Multiparty ECDSA Shlomovits, Omer and Seres, Istv\'an Andr\'as. 2019
2
75.Practical Mutation Testing for Smart Contracts Honig, Joran J and Everts, Maarten H and Huisman, Marieke. 2019
2
76.On the optionality and fairness of Atomic Swaps Han, Runchao and Lin, Haoyu and Yu, Jiangshan. 2019
2
77.SAFEVM: A Safety Verifier for Ethereum Smart Contracts Albert, Elvira and Correas, Jes\'us and Gordillo, Pablo and Rom\'an-D\'\iez, Guillermo and Rubio, Albert. 2019
1
78.Proof-Carrying Smart Contracts Dickerson, Thomas and Gazzillo, Paul and Herlihy, Maurice and Saraph, Vikram and Koskinen, Eric. 2018
1
79.The Arwen Trading Protocols (Full Version) Ethan Heilman and Sebastien Lipmann and Sharon Goldberg. 2020
1
80.GASOL: Gas Analysis and Optimization for Ethereum Smart Contracts Albert, Elvira and Correas, Jes\'us and Gordillo, Pablo and Rom\'an-D\'\iez, Guillermo and Rubio, Albert. 2019
1
81.Attacking the DeFi Ecosystem with Flash Loans for Fun and Profit Qin, Kaihua and Zhou, Liyi and Livshits, Benjamin and Gervais, Arthur. 2020
1
82.zkRelay: Facilitating Sidechains using zkSNARK-based Chain-Relays Martin Westerkamp and Jacob Eberhardt. 2020
1
83.Gas limit aware mutation testing of smart contracts at scale Hartel, Pieter and Schumi, Richard. 2019
0
84.ZETH: On Integrating Zerocash on Ethereum Rondelet, Antoine and Zajac, Michal. 2019
0
85.WaterCarver: Anonymous Confidential Blockchain System based on Account Model Jiajun Xin and Pei Huang and Lei Chen and Xin Lai and Xiao Zhang and Wulu Li and Yongcan Wang. 2019
0
86.OptiSwap: Fast Optimistic Fair Exchange Lisa Eckey and Sebastian Faust and Benjamin Schlosser. 2019
0
87.Verifiable Computation using Smart Contracts Avizheh, Sepideh and Nabi, Mahmudun and Safavi-Naini, Reihaneh and Venkateswarlu K, Muni. 2019
0
88.{\AE}GIS: Smart Shielding of Smart Contracts Ferreira Torres, Christof and Baden, Mathis and Norvill, Robert and Jonker, Hugo. 2019
0
89.MPro: Combining Static and Symbolic Analysis for Scalable Testing of Smart Contract Zhang, William and Banescu, Sebastian and Pasos, Leodardo and Stewart, Steven and Ganesh, Vijay. 2019
0
90.An Alternative Paradigm for Developing and Pricing Storage on Smart Contract Platforms Patsonakis, Christos and Roussopoulos, Mema. 2019
0
91.Scalable Open-Vote Network on Ethereum Mohamed Seifelnasr and Hisham S. Galal and Amr M. Youssef. 2020
0
92.Formalising and verifying smart contracts with Solidifier: a bounded model checker for Solidity Antonino, Pedro and Roscoe, AW. 2020
0
93.WIP: Finding Bugs Automatically in Smart Contracts with Parameterized Invariants Bernardi, Thomas and Dor, Nurit and Fedotov, Anastasia and Grossman, Shelly and Immerman, Neil and Jackson, Daniel and Nutz, Alex and Oppenheim, Lior and Pistiner, Or and Rinetzky, Noam and others. 2020
0
94."Many-out-of-Many" Proofs with Applications to Anonymous Zether Benjamin E. Diamond. 2020
0
95.Combining GHOST and Casper Buterin, Vitalik and Hernandez, Diego and Kamphefner, Thor and Pham, Khiem and Qiao, Zhi and Ryan, Danny and Sin, Juhyeok and Wang, Ying and Zhang, Yan X. 2020
0
96.Termination of Ethereum's Smart Contracts Genet, Thomas and Jensen, Thomas and Sauvage, Justine. 2020
0
97.Analyzing Smart Contracts: From EVM to a sound Control-Flow Graph Albert, Elvira and Correas, Jes\'us and Gordillo, Pablo and Rom\'an-D\'\iez, Guillermo and Rubio, Albert. 2020
0
98.Implementing a Smart Contract PKI Patsonakis, Christos and Samari, Katerina and Kiayias, Aggelos and Roussopoulos, Mema. 2020
0
99.Formal Verification of Solidity contracts in Event-B Zhu, Jian and Hu, Kai and Filali, Mamoun and Bodeveix, Jean-Paul and Talpin, Jean-Pierre. 2020
0
100.eThor: Practical and Provably Sound Static Analysis of Ethereum Smart Contracts Schneidewind, Clara and Grishchenko, Ilya and Scherer, Markus and Maffei, Matteo. 2020
0
101.TxChain: Efficient Cryptocurrency Light Clients via Contingent Transaction Aggregation Alexei Zamyatin and Zeta Avarikioti and Daniel Perez and William J. Knottenbelt. 2020
0
102.EthScope: A Transaction-centric Security Analytics Framework to Detect Malicious Smart Contracts on Ethereum Wu, Lei and Wu, Siwei and Zhou, Yajin and Li, Runhuai and Wang, Zhi and Luo, Xiapu and Wang, Cong and Ren, Kui. 2020
0
103.Why Do Smart Contracts Self-Destruct? Investigating the Selfdestruct Function on Ethereum Chen, Jiachi and Xia, Xin and Lo, David and Grundy, John. 2020
0
104.Formal Specification and Verification of Solidity Contracts with Events Hajdu, Akos and Jovanovic, Dejan and Ciocarlie, Gabriela. 2020
0