A curated list of papers ordered by number of citations. Last updated 2019-08-20

#Title
Citations
1.Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System Nakamoto, Satoshi. 2008
6948
2.Majority is not enough: Bitcoin mining is vulnerable Eyal, Ittay and Gün Sirer, Emin. 2014
1021
3.Hashcash - A Denial of Service Counter-Measure Back, Adam. 2002
604
4.The Bitcoin Backbone Protocol : Analysis and Applications Garay, Juan A and Kiayias, Aggelos and Leonardos, Nikos. 2014
561
5.Bitcoin-NG: A Scalable Blockchain Protocol Eyal, Ittay and Gencer, Adem Efe and Sirer, Emin Gün and van Renesse, Robbert. 2016
523
6.On the security and performance of proof of work blockchains Gervais, Arthur and Karame, Ghassan O and W\"ust, Karl and Glykantzis, Vasileios and Ritzdorf, Hubert and Capkun, Srdjan. 2016
401
7.Algorand Chen, Jing and Micali, Silvio. 2016
268
8.Optimal Selfish Mining Strategies in Bitcoin Sapirshtein, Ayelet and Sompolinsky, Yonatan and Zohar, Aviv. 2015
251
9.Analysis of the Blockchain Protocol in Asynchronous Networks Pass, Rafael and Seeman, Lior and abhi Shelat. 2016
232
10.The Ripple protocol consensus algorithm Schwartz, D and Youngs, N and Britto, A. 2014
231
11.The Miner's Dilemma Eyal, Ittay. 2014
225
12.The honey badger of BFT protocols Miller, Andrew and Xia, Yu and Croman, Kyle and Shi, Elaine and Song, Dawn. 2016
184
13.Inclusive block chain protocols Lewenberg, Yoad and Sompolinsky, Yonatan and Zohar, Aviv. 2015
159
14.Blockchain consensus protocols in the wild Cachin, Christian and Vukoli\'c, Marko. 2017
154
15.Hybrid consensus: Efficient consensus in the permissionless model Pass, Rafael and Shi, Elaine. 2017
115
16.Fruitchains: A fair blockchain Pass, Rafael and Shi, Elaine. 2016
111
17.Accelerating Bitcoin's Transaction Processing. Fast Money Grows on Trees, Not Chains Sompolinsky, Yonatan and Zohar, A. 2013
94
18.Consensus in the age of blockchains Bano, Shehar and Sonnino, Alberto and Al-Bassam, Mustafa and Azouvi, Sarah and McCorry, Patrick and Meiklejohn, Sarah and Danezis, George. 2017
88
19.Speed-Security Tradeoffs in Blockchain Protocols Kiayias, Aggelos and Panagiotakos, Giorgos. 2015
78
20.Anonymous Byzantine Consensus from Moderately-Hard Puzzles: A Model for Bitcoin Miller, Andrew and Jr, Jj LaViola. 2014
74
21.The Bitcoin Backbone Protocol with Chains of Variable Difficulty Juan A. Garay and Aggelos Kiayias and Nikos Leonardos. 2016
68
22.Thunderella: Blockchains with Optimistic Instant Confirmation Rafael Pass and Elaine Shi. 2017
57
23.On Trees, Chains and Fast Transactions in the Blockchain Kiayias, Aggelos and Panagiotakos, Giorgos. 2016
46
24.Verifiable Delay Functions Dan Boneh, Joseph Bonneau, Benedikt Bünz, Ben Fisch. 2018
46
25.On The Longest Chain Rule and Programmed Self-Destruction of Crypto Currencies Courtois, Nicolas T. 2014
39
26.Polkadot: Vision for a heterogeneous multi-chain framework Wood, Gavin. 2016
38
27.DFINITY Technology Overview Series, Consensus System Hanke, Timo and Movahedi, Mahnush and Williams, Dominic. 2018
34
28.When cryptocurrencies mine their own business Teutsch, Jason and Jain, Sanjay and Saxena, Prateek. 2016
29
29.Publish or Perish: A Backward-Compatible Defense against Selfish Mining in Bitcoin Zhang, Ren and Preneel, Bart. 2017
28
30.PHANTOM: A Scalable BlockDAG Protocol Yonatan Sompolinsky and Aviv Zohar. 2018
26
31.Mechanising Blockchain Consensus P\^\irlea, George and Sergey, Ilya. 2018
23
32.SPECTRE: Serialization of Proof-of-work Events: Confirming Transactions via Recursive Elections Sompolinsky, Yonatan and Lewenberg, Yoad and Zohar, Aviv. 2016
20
33.Stake-Bleeding Attacks on Proof-of-Stake Blockchains Peter Gaži and Aggelos Kiayias and Alexander Russell. 2018
19
34.Rethinking Large-Scale Consensus Rafael Pass and Elaine Shi. 2018
19
35.Agreement with Satoshi – On the Formalization of Nakamoto Consensus Nicholas Stifter and Aljosha Judmayer and Philipp Schindler and Alexei Zamyatin and Edgar Weippl. 2018
12
36.Bootstrapping the Blockchain, with Applications to Consensus and Fast PKI Setup Garay, Juan A and Kiayias, Aggelos and Leonardos, Nikos and Panagiotakos, Giorgos. 2018
12
37.Blockchain-Free Cryptocurrencies: A Framework for Truly Decentralised Fast Transactions Boyen, Xavier and Carr, Christopher and Haines, Thomas. 2016
10
38.On the Necessity of a Prescribed Block Validity Consensus: Analyzing Bitcoin Unlimited Mining Protocol Ren Zhang and Bart Preneel. 2017
10
39.The Thunder Protocol Pass, Rafael and Shi, Elaine. 2018
10
40.A Better Method to Analyze Blockchain Consistency Kiffer, Lucianna and Rajaraman, Rajmohan and others. 2018
9
41.Blockmania: from Block DAGs to Consensus Danezis, George and Hrycyszyn, David. 2018
8
42.Ouroboros-BFT: A Simple Byzantine Fault Tolerant Consensus Protocol Kiayias, Aggelos and Russell, Alexander. 2018
7
43.Sok: A consensus taxonomy in the blockchain era Garay, Juan and Kiayias, Aggelos. 2018
7
44.Managing Secrets with Consensus Networks: Fairness, Ransomware and Access Control. Kaptchuk, Gabriel and Miers, Ian and Green, Matthew. 2017
7
45.Lay down the common metrics: Evaluating proof-of-work consensus protocols’ security Zhang, Ren and Preneel, Bart. 2019
7
46.A Scalable Proof-of-Stake Blockchain in the Open Setting Fan, Lei and Zhou, Hong-Sheng and Katz, Jonathan. 2018
6
47.Betting on Blockchain Consensus with Fantomette Azouvi, Sarah and McCorry, Patrick and Meiklejohn, Sarah. 2018
5
48.Graphchain: a Blockchain-Free Scalable Decentralised Ledger Boyen, Xavier and Carr, Christopher and Haines, Thomas. 2018
4
49.A Nonoutsourceable Puzzle under GHOST Rule Zeng, Gongxian and Yiu, Siu Ming and Zhang, Jun and Kuzuno, Hiroki and Au, Man Ho. 2017
4
50.PaLa: A Simple Partially Synchronous Blockchain Chan, TH Hubert and Pass, Rafael and Shi, Elaine. 2018
4
51.Communication complexity of byzantine agreement, revisited Abraham, Ittai and Chan, TH and Dolev, Danny and Nayak, Kartik and Pass, Rafael and Ren, Ling and Shi, Elaine. 2018
4
52.Redactable blockchain in the permissionless setting Deuber, Dominic and Magri, Bernardo and Thyagarajan, Sri Aravinda Krishnan. 2019
3
53.Efficient Algorithms for Broadcast and Consensus Based on Proofs of Work Lisa Eckey and Sebastian Faust and Julian Loss. 2017
2
54.PiLi: An Extremely Simple Synchronous Blockchain Chan, TH Hubert and Pass, Rafael and Shi, Elaine. 2018
2
55.Analysis of Deterministic Longest-Chain Protocols Shi, Elaine. 2018
1
56.Pay-To-Win: Incentive Attacks on Proof-of-Work Cryptocurrencies Aljosha Judmayer and Nicholas Stifter and Alexei Zamyatin and Itay Tsabary and Ittay Eyal and Peter Gazi and Sarah Meiklejohn and Edgar Weippl. 2019
1
57.StrongChain: Transparent and Collaborative Proof-of-Work Consensus Szalachowski, Pawel and Reijsbergen, Dani\"el and Homoliak, Ivan and Sun, Siwei. 2019
1
58.Consensus through Herding Chan, TH Hubert and Pass, Rafael and Shi, Elaine. 2019
0
59.Scalable and Probabilistic Leaderless BFT Consensus through Metastability Rocket, Team and Yin, Maofan and Sekniqi, Kevin and van Renesse, Robbert and Sirer, Emin G\"un. 2019
0
60.Toychain: Formally Verified Blockchain Consensus George P\^ırlea. 2019
0
61.Ouroboros Chronos: Permissionless Clock Synchronization via Proof-of-Stake Christian Badertscher and Peter Gaži and Aggelos Kiayias and Alexander Russell and Vassilis Zikas. 2019
0
62.Fractal: A New Paradigm for High-Performance Proof-of-Stake Blockchains Zhou, Hong-Sheng. 2019
0