A curated list of papers ordered by number of citations. Last updated 2020-01-15

#Title
Citations
1.Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System Nakamoto, Satoshi. 2008
8953
2.Majority is not enough: Bitcoin mining is vulnerable Eyal, Ittay and Gün Sirer, Emin. 2014
1219
3.A next-generation smart contract and decentralized application platform Buterin, Vitalik. 2014
910
4.The Bitcoin Backbone Protocol : Analysis and Applications Garay, Juan A and Kiayias, Aggelos and Leonardos, Nikos. 2014
702
5.Hashcash - A Denial of Service Counter-Measure Back, Adam. 2002
695
6.Bitcoin-NG: A Scalable Blockchain Protocol Eyal, Ittay and Gencer, Adem Efe and Sirer, Emin Gün and van Renesse, Robbert. 2016
659
7.Hyperledger fabric: a distributed operating system for permissioned blockchains Androulaki, Elli and Barger, Artem and Bortnikov, Vita and Cachin, Christian and Christidis, Konstantinos and De Caro, Angelo and Enyeart, David and Ferris, Christopher and Laventman, Gennady and Manevich, Yacov and Muralidharan, Srinivasan and Murthy, Chet and Nguyen, Binh and Sethi, Manish and Singh, Gari and Smith, Keith and Sorniotti, Alessandro and Stathakopoulou, Chrysoula and Vukolić, Marko and Weed Cocco, Sharon and Yellick, Jason. 2018
651
8.The quest for scalable blockchain fabric: Proof-of-work vs. BFT replication Vukolić, Marko. 2015
581
9.On the security and performance of proof of work blockchains Gervais, Arthur and Karame, Ghassan O and W\"ust, Karl and Glykantzis, Vasileios and Ritzdorf, Hubert and Capkun, Srdjan. 2016
525
10.Algorand Chen, Jing and Micali, Silvio. 2016
384
11.The Ripple protocol consensus algorithm Schwartz, D and Youngs, N and Britto, A. 2014
307
12.Optimal Selfish Mining Strategies in Bitcoin Sapirshtein, Ayelet and Sompolinsky, Yonatan and Zohar, Aviv. 2015
304
13.Analysis of the Blockchain Protocol in Asynchronous Networks Pass, Rafael and Seeman, Lior and abhi Shelat. 2016
297
14.The Miner's Dilemma Eyal, Ittay. 2014
277
15.The honey badger of BFT protocols Miller, Andrew and Xia, Yu and Croman, Kyle and Shi, Elaine and Song, Dawn. 2016
249
16.Blockchain consensus protocols in the wild Cachin, Christian and Vukoli\'c, Marko. 2017
232
17.The stellar consensus protocol: A federated model for internet-level consensus Mazieres, David. 2015
224
18.Casper the friendly finality gadget Buterin, Vitalik and Griffith, Virgil. 2017
205
19.Inclusive block chain protocols Lewenberg, Yoad and Sompolinsky, Yonatan and Zohar, Aviv. 2015
197
20.Hybrid consensus: Efficient consensus in the permissionless model Pass, Rafael and Shi, Elaine. 2017
147
21.Fruitchains: A fair blockchain Pass, Rafael and Shi, Elaine. 2016
143
22.Demystifying incentives in the consensus computer Luu, Loi and Teutsch, Jason and Kulkarni, Raghav and Saxena, Prateek. 2015
138
23.Tendermint: Byzantine fault tolerance in the age of blockchains Buchman, Ethan. 2016
128
24.Consensus in the age of blockchains Bano, Shehar and Sonnino, Alberto and Al-Bassam, Mustafa and Azouvi, Sarah and McCorry, Patrick and Meiklejohn, Sarah and Danezis, George. 2017
126
25.Accelerating Bitcoin's Transaction Processing. Fast Money Grows on Trees, Not Chains Sompolinsky, Yonatan and Zohar, A. 2013
109
26.Speed-Security Tradeoffs in Blockchain Protocols Kiayias, Aggelos and Panagiotakos, Giorgos. 2015
93
27.The Bitcoin Backbone Protocol with Chains of Variable Difficulty Juan A. Garay and Aggelos Kiayias and Nikos Leonardos. 2016
87
28.Anonymous Byzantine Consensus from Moderately-Hard Puzzles: A Model for Bitcoin Miller, Andrew and Jr, Jj LaViola. 2014
83
29.Thunderella: Blockchains with Optimistic Instant Confirmation Rafael Pass and Elaine Shi. 2017
74
30.Verifiable Delay Functions Dan Boneh, Joseph Bonneau, Benedikt Bünz, Ben Fisch. 2018
65
31.Scp: A computationally-scalable byzantine consensus protocol for blockchains Luu, Loi and Narayanan, Viswesh and Baweja, Kunal and Zheng, Chaodong and Gilbert, Seth and Saxena, Prateek. 2015
65
32.On Trees, Chains and Fast Transactions in the Blockchain Kiayias, Aggelos and Panagiotakos, Giorgos. 2016
58
33.DFINITY Technology Overview Series, Consensus System Hanke, Timo and Movahedi, Mahnush and Williams, Dominic. 2018
53
34.On The Longest Chain Rule and Programmed Self-Destruction of Crypto Currencies Courtois, Nicolas T. 2014
41
35.Stake-Bleeding Attacks on Proof-of-Stake Blockchains Peter Gaži and Aggelos Kiayias and Alexander Russell. 2018
38
36.Publish or Perish: A Backward-Compatible Defense against Selfish Mining in Bitcoin Zhang, Ren and Preneel, Bart. 2017
36
37.When cryptocurrencies mine their own business Teutsch, Jason and Jain, Sanjay and Saxena, Prateek. 2016
35
38.Mechanising Blockchain Consensus P\^\irlea, George and Sergey, Ilya. 2018
30
39.Rethinking Large-Scale Consensus Rafael Pass and Elaine Shi. 2018
27
40.SPECTRE: Serialization of Proof-of-work Events: Confirming Transactions via Recursive Elections Sompolinsky, Yonatan and Lewenberg, Yoad and Zohar, Aviv. 2016
24
41.Revisiting Difficulty Control for Blockchain Systems Meshkov, Dmitry and Chepurnoy, Alexander and Jansen, Marc. 2017
21
42.A Better Method to Analyze Blockchain Consistency Kiffer, Lucianna and Rajaraman, Rajmohan and others. 2018
21
43.Why buy when you can rent? bribery attacks on bitcoin consensus Bonneau, Joseph and Felten, Edward W and Goldfeder, Steven and Kroll, Joshua A and Narayanan, Arvind. 2016
19
44.Sok: A consensus taxonomy in the blockchain era Garay, Juan and Kiayias, Aggelos. 2018
18
45.Agreement with Satoshi – On the Formalization of Nakamoto Consensus Nicholas Stifter and Aljosha Judmayer and Philipp Schindler and Alexei Zamyatin and Edgar Weippl. 2018
17
46.Lay down the common metrics: Evaluating proof-of-work consensus protocols’ security Zhang, Ren and Preneel, Bart. 2019
17
47.Analysis of Nakamoto Consensus Ling Ren. 2019
17
48.Blockchain-Free Cryptocurrencies: A Framework for Truly Decentralised Fast Transactions Boyen, Xavier and Carr, Christopher and Haines, Thomas. 2016
15
49.Bootstrapping the Blockchain, with Applications to Consensus and Fast PKI Setup Garay, Juan A and Kiayias, Aggelos and Leonardos, Nikos and Panagiotakos, Giorgos. 2018
15
50.On the Necessity of a Prescribed Block Validity Consensus: Analyzing Bitcoin Unlimited Mining Protocol Ren Zhang and Bart Preneel. 2017
13
51.Redactable blockchain in the permissionless setting Deuber, Dominic and Magri, Bernardo and Thyagarajan, Sri Aravinda Krishnan. 2019
12
52.Blockmania: from Block DAGs to Consensus Danezis, George and Hrycyszyn, David. 2018
10
53.The Thunder Protocol Pass, Rafael and Shi, Elaine. 2018
10
54.Correctness and fairness of tendermint-core blockchains Amoussou-Guenou, Yackolley and Del Pozzo, Antonella and Potop-Butucaru, Maria and Tucci-Piergiovanni, Sara. 2018
10
55.Ouroboros-BFT: A Simple Byzantine Fault Tolerant Consensus Protocol Kiayias, Aggelos and Russell, Alexander. 2018
9
56.Betting on Blockchain Consensus with Fantomette Azouvi, Sarah and McCorry, Patrick and Meiklejohn, Sarah. 2018
9
57.State Machine Replication in the Libra Blockchain Baudet, Mathieu and Ching, Avery and Chursin, Andrey and Danezis, George and Garillot, Fran\ccois and Li, Zekun and Malkhi, Dahlia and Naor, Oded and Perelman, Dmitri and Sonnino, Alberto. 2019
9
58.Casper the friendly ghost: A correct by construction blockchain consensus protocol Zamfir, Vlad. 2017
9
59.Incentives in Ethereum's Hybrid Casper Protocol Buterin, Vitalik and Reijsbergen, Daniel and Leonardos, Stefanos and Piliouras, Georgios. 2019
9
60.PaLa: A Simple Partially Synchronous Blockchain Chan, TH Hubert and Pass, Rafael and Shi, Elaine. 2018
8
61.Communication complexity of byzantine agreement, revisited Abraham, Ittai and Chan, TH and Dolev, Danny and Nayak, Kartik and Pass, Rafael and Ren, Ling and Shi, Elaine. 2018
8
62.Managing Secrets with Consensus Networks: Fairness, Ransomware and Access Control. Kaptchuk, Gabriel and Miers, Ian and Green, Matthew. 2017
7
63.A Scalable Proof-of-Stake Blockchain in the Open Setting Fan, Lei and Zhou, Hong-Sheng and Katz, Jonathan. 2018
7
64.Synchronous, with a Chance of Partition Tolerance. Guo, Yue and Pass, Rafael and Shi, Elaine. 2019
7
65.Polygraph: Accountable Byzantine Agreement Civit, Pierre and Gilbert, Seth and Gramoli, Vincent. 2019
5
66.Graphchain: a Blockchain-Free Scalable Decentralised Ledger Boyen, Xavier and Carr, Christopher and Haines, Thomas. 2018
4
67.PHANTOM: A Scalable BlockDAG Protocol Yonatan Sompolinsky and Aviv Zohar. 2018
4
68.A Nonoutsourceable Puzzle under GHOST Rule Zeng, Gongxian and Yiu, Siu Ming and Zhang, Jun and Kuzuno, Hiroki and Au, Man Ho. 2017
4
69.StrongChain: Transparent and Collaborative Proof-of-Work Consensus Szalachowski, Pawel and Reijsbergen, Dani\"el and Homoliak, Ivan and Sun, Siwei. 2019
4
70.PiLi: An Extremely Simple Synchronous Blockchain Chan, TH Hubert and Pass, Rafael and Shi, Elaine. 2018
3
71.Consensus through Herding Chan, TH Hubert and Pass, Rafael and Shi, Elaine. 2019
3
72.Pay-To-Win: Incentive Attacks on Proof-of-Work Cryptocurrencies Aljosha Judmayer and Nicholas Stifter and Alexei Zamyatin and Itay Tsabary and Ittay Eyal and Peter Gazi and Sarah Meiklejohn and Edgar Weippl. 2019
3
73.Scalable and Probabilistic Leaderless BFT Consensus through Metastability Rocket, Team and Yin, Maofan and Sekniqi, Kevin and van Renesse, Robbert and Sirer, Emin G\"un. 2019
3
74.Platypus: a Partially Synchronous Offchain Protocol for Blockchains Ranchal-Pedrosa, Alejandro and Gramoli, Vincent. 2019
3
75.Efficient Algorithms for Broadcast and Consensus Based on Proofs of Work Lisa Eckey and Sebastian Faust and Julian Loss. 2017
2
76.Analysis of Deterministic Longest-Chain Protocols Shi, Elaine. 2018
2
77.Afgjort--A Semi-Synchronous Finality Layer for Blockchains Magri, Bernardo and Matt, Christian and Nielsen, Jesper Buus and Tschudi, Daniel. 2019
2
78.Ouroboros Chronos: Permissionless Clock Synchronization via Proof-of-Stake Christian Badertscher and Peter Gaži and Aggelos Kiayias and Alexander Russell and Vassilis Zikas. 2019
1
79.Digital Signatures for Consensus. Gorbunov, Sergey and Wee, Hoeteck. 2019
1
80.Divide and Scale: Formalization of Distributed Ledger Sharding Protocols Avarikioti, Georgia and Kokoris-Kogias, Eleftherios and Wattenhofer, Roger. 2019
1
81.Compact Storage of Superblocks for NIPoPoW Applications Kostis Karantias and Aggelos Kiayias and Nikos Leonardos and Dionysis Zindros. 2019
1
82.Number of confirmation blocks for Bitcoin and GHOST consensus protocols on networks with delayed message delivery Kovalchuk, Lyudmila and Kaidalov, Dmytro and Nastenko, Andrii and Shevtsov, Oleksiy and Rodinko, Mariia and Oliynykov, Roman. 2018
1
83.Toychain: Formally Verified Blockchain Consensus George P\^ırlea. 2019
0
84.Fractal: A New Paradigm for High-Performance Proof-of-Stake Blockchains Zhou, Hong-Sheng. 2019
0
85.The Rush Dilemma: Attacking and Repairing Smart Contracts on Forking Blockchains Vincenzo Botta and Daniele Friolo and Daniele Venturi and Ivan Visconti. 2019
0
86.ABC: Asynchronous Blockchain without Consensus Sliwinski, Jakub and Wattenhofer, Roger. 2019
0
87.The Bitcoin Backbone Protocol Against Quantum Adversaries Alexandru Cojocaru and Juan Garay and Aggelos Kiayias and Fang Song and Petros Wallden. 2019
0
88.TULIP: A Fully Incentive Compatible Blockchain Framework Amortizing Redundant Communication Ersoy, Oguzhan and Zekeriya, Erkin and Lagendijk, Reginald L. 2019
0
89.Barracuda: The Power of $$\backslash$ell $-polling in Proof-of-Stake Blockchains Fanti, Giulia and Jiao, Jiantao and Makkuva, Ashok and Oh, Sewoong and Rana, Ranvir and Viswanath, Pramod. 2019
0
90.A Formal Analysis of Blockchain Consensus Laneve, Cosimo and Veschetti, Adele. 2019
0
91.Hydra: A Multiple Blockchain Protocol for Improving Transaction Throughput G\"undlach, Rowel and Hoepman, Jaap-Henk and van der Hofstad, Remco and Koens, Tommy and Meijer, Stijn. 2019
0
92.Rationality is Self-Defeating in Permissionless Systems Ford, Bryan and B\"ohme, Rainer. 2019
0
93.BackPackers: A New Network Paradigm for Secure and High-performance Blockchains Thai, Phuc D and Zhou, Hong-sheng and Katz, Jonathan and Fan, Lei and Dinh, Thang N. 2019
0
94.Just Enough Security: Reducing Proof-of-Work Ecological Footprint Tsabary, Itay and Spiegelman, Alexander and Eyal, Ittay. 2019
0
95.On Profitability of Nakamoto double spend Grunspan, Cyril and P\'erez-Marco, Ricardo. 2019
0
96.Consistency in Proof-of-Stake Blockchains with Concurrent Honest Slot Leaders Aggelos Kiayias and Saad Quader and Alexander Russell. 2020
0
97.Reparo: Publicly Verifiable Layer to Repair Blockchains Thyagarajan, Sri Aravinda Krishnan and Bhat, Adithya and Magri, Bernardo and Tschudi, Daniel and Kate, Aniket. 2020
0