A curated list of papers ordered by number of citations. Last updated 2019-11-11

#Title
Citations
1.Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System Nakamoto, Satoshi. 2008
8039
2.Mastering Bitcoin: unlocking digital cryptocurrencies Antonopoulos, Andreas M. 2014
1009
3.Decentralizing privacy: Using blockchain to protect personal data Zyskind, Guy and Nathan, Oz and others. 2015
878
4.Bitcoin and cryptocurrency technologies: a comprehensive introduction Narayanan, Arvind and Bonneau, Joseph and Felten, Edward and Miller, Andrew and Goldfeder, Steven. 2016
797
5.Zerocash: Decentralized anonymous payments from bitcoin Ben-Sasson, Eli and Chiesa, Alessandro and Garman, Christina and Green, Matthew and Miers, Ian and Tromer, Eran and Virza, Madars. 2014
761
6.A fistful of bitcoins: characterizing payments among men with no names Meiklejohn, Sarah and Pomarole, Marjori and Jordan, Grant and Levchenko, Kirill and McCoy, Damon and Voelker, Geoffrey M and Savage, Stefan. 2013
732
7.Information propagation in the Bitcoin network Decker, Christian and Wattenhofer, Roger. 2013
623
8.Bitter to better - How to make bitcoin a better currency Barber, Simon and Boyen, Xavier and Shi, Elaine and Uzun, Ersin. 2012
543
9.The quest for scalable blockchain fabric: Proof-of-work vs. BFT replication Vukolić, Marko. 2015
525
10.Evaluating user privacy in bitcoin Androulaki, Elli and Karame, Ghassan O and Roeschlin, Marc and Scherer, Tobias and Capkun, Srdjan. 2013
440
11.The economics of Bitcoin mining, or Bitcoin in the presence of adversaries Kroll, Joshua A and Davey, Ian C and Felten, Edward W. 2013
391
12.The bitcoin lightning network: Scalable off-chain instant payments Poon, Joseph and Dryja, Thaddeus. 2016
376
13.Enhancing bitcoin security and performance with strong consistency via collective signing Kogias, Eleftherios Kokoris and Jovanovic, Philipp and Gailly, Nicolas and Khoffi, Ismail and Gasser, Linus and Ford, Bryan. 2016
314
14.Deanonymisation of clients in Bitcoin P2P network Biryukov, Alex and Khovratovich, Dmitry and Pustogarov, Ivan. 2014
256
15.On Bitcoin and red balloons Babaioff, Moshe and Dobzinski, Shahar and Oren, Sigal and Zohar, Aviv. 2011
234
16.Analysis of Hashrate-Based Double Spending Rosenfeld, Meni. 2014
219
17.A survey on security and privacy issues of bitcoin Conti, Mauro and Kumar, E Sandeep and Lal, Chhagan and Ruj, Sushmita. 2018
210
18.Is bitcoin a decentralized currency? Gervais, Arthur and Karame, Ghassan O and Capkun, Vedran and Capkun, Srdjan. 2014
194
19.Hijacking bitcoin: Routing attacks on cryptocurrencies Apostolaki, Maria and Zohar, Aviv and Vanbever, Laurent. 2017
155
20.On Subversive Miner Strategies and Block Withholding Attack in Bitcoin Digital Currency Courtois, Nicolas T and Bahack, Lear. 2013
150
21.On the instability of bitcoin without the block reward Carlsten, Miles and Kalodner, Harry and Weinberg, S Matthew and Narayanan, Arvind. 2016
143
22.Have a Snack, Pay with Bitcoins Bamert, Tobias and Decker, Christian and Elsen, Lennart and Wattenhofer, Roger and Welten, Samuel. 2013
125
23.Difficulty control for blockchain-based consensus systems Kraft, Daniel. 2016
119
24.Game-theoretic analysis of DDoS attacks against Bitcoin mining pools Johnson, Benjamin and Laszka, Aron and Grossklags, Jens and Vasek, Marie and Moore, Tyler. 2014
114
25.Empirical analysis of denial-of-service attacks in the Bitcoin ecosystem Vasek, Marie and Thornton, Micah and Moore, Tyler. 2014
112
26.TumbleBit: An untrusted Bitcoin-compatible anonymous payment hub Heilman, Ethan and Alshenibr, Leen and Baldimtsi, Foteini and Scafuro, Alessandra and Goldberg, Sharon. 2017
101
27.Decentralization in bitcoin and ethereum networks Gencer, Adem Efe and Basu, Soumya and Eyal, Ittay and Van Renesse, Robbert and Sirer, Emin G\"un. 2018
95
28.On power splitting games in distributed computation: The case of bitcoin pooled mining Luu, Loi and Saha, Ratul and Parameshwaran, Inian and Saxena, Prateek and Hobor, Aquinas. 2015
89
29.Blindly signed contracts: Anonymous on-blockchain and off-blockchain bitcoin transactions Heilman, Ethan and Baldimtsi, Foteini and Goldberg, Sharon. 2016
88
30.The Bitcoin Backbone Protocol with Chains of Variable Difficulty Juan A. Garay and Aggelos Kiayias and Nikos Leonardos. 2016
84
31.On Bitcoin as a public randomness source. Bonneau, Joseph and Clark, Jeremy and Goldfeder, Steven. 2015
82
32.Proof-of-Burn Kostis Karantias and Aggelos Kiayias and Dionysis Zindros. 2019
82
33.Nonoutsourceable scratch-off puzzles to discourage bitcoin mining coalitions Miller, Andrew and Kosba, Ahmed and Katz, Jonathan and Shi, Elaine. 2015
79
34.Theoretical Bitcoin Attacks with less than Half of the Computational Power (draft) Lear Bahack. 2013
79
35.Threshold-optimal DSA/ECDSA signatures and an application to Bitcoin wallet security Gennaro, Rosario and Goldfeder, Steven and Narayanan, Arvind. 2016
78
36.Incentive Compatibility of Bitcoin Mining Pool Reward Functions Schrijvers, Okke and Bonneau, Joseph and Boneh, Dan and Roughgarden, Tim. 2016
77
37.How to use bitcoin to play decentralized poker Kumaresan, Ranjit and Moran, Tal and Bentov, Iddo. 2015
72
38.Trends, tips, tolls: A longitudinal study of Bitcoin transaction fees M\"oser, Malte and B\"ohme, Rainer. 2015
67
39.When bitcoin mining pools run dry Laszka, Aron and Johnson, Benjamin and Grossklags, Jens. 2015
57
40.Concurrency and privacy with payment-channel networks Malavolta, Giulio and Moreno-Sanchez, Pedro and Kate, Aniket and Maffei, Matteo and Ravi, Srivatsan. 2017
52
41.Bitcoin as a Transaction Ledger: A Composable Treatment Christian Badertscher and Ueli Maurer and Daniel Tschudi and Vassilis Zikas. 2017
49
42.P2P Mixing and Unlinkable Bitcoin Transactions. Ruffing, Tim and Moreno-Sanchez, Pedro and Kate, Aniket. 2017
47
43.How did dread pirate roberts acquire and protect his bitcoin wealth? Ron, Dorit and Shamir, Adi. 2014
46
44.On the Malleability of Bitcoin Transactions Marcin Andrychowicz and Stefan Dziembowski and Daniel Malinowski and Lukasz Mazurek. 2015
45
45.Bitcoin's security model revisited Sompolinsky, Yonatan and Zohar, Aviv. 2016
44
46.Liar, liar, coins on fire!: Penalizing equivocation by loss of bitcoins Ruffing, Tim and Kate, Aniket and Schr\"oder, Dominique. 2015
43
47.Simple schnorr multi-signatures with applications to bitcoin Maxwell, Gregory and Poelstra, Andrew and Seurin, Yannick and Wuille, Pieter. 2018
37
48.Validation of decentralised smart contracts through game theory and formal methods Bigi, Giancarlo and Bracciali, Andrea and Meacci, Giovanni and Tuosto, Emilio. 2015
36
49.Towards bitcoin payment networks McCorry, Patrick and M\"oser, Malte and Shahandasti, Siamak F and Hao, Feng. 2016
36
50.Publish or Perish: A Backward-Compatible Defense against Selfish Mining in Bitcoin Zhang, Ren and Preneel, Bart. 2017
34
51.When cryptocurrencies mine their own business Teutsch, Jason and Jain, Sanjay and Saxena, Prateek. 2016
33
52.Flare: An approach to routing in lightning network Prihodko, Pavel and Zhigulin, Slava and Sahno, Mykola and Ostrovskiy, Aleksei and Osuntokun, Olaoluwa. 2016
33
53.Strong federations: An interoperable blockchain solution to centralized third-party risks Dilley, Johnny and Poelstra, Andrew and Wilkins, Jonathan and Piekarska, Marta and Gorlick, Ben and Friedenbach, Mark. 2016
30
54.Securing Bitcoin wallets via a new DSA/ECDSA threshold signature scheme Goldfeder, Steven and Gennaro, Rosario and Kalodner, Harry and Bonneau, Joseph and Kroll, Joshua A and Felten, Edward W and Narayanan, Arvind. 2015
28
55.Modeling bitcoin contracts by timed automata Andrychowicz, Marcin and Dziembowski, Stefan and Malinowski, Daniel and Mazurek, \Lukasz. 2014
27
56.Smart contracts make bitcoin mining pools vulnerable Velner, Yaron and Teutsch, Jason and Luu, Loi. 2017
27
57.Incentivizing blockchain forks via whale transactions Liao, Kevin and Katz, Jonathan. 2017
25
58.Bitcoin covenants M\"oser, Malte and Eyal, Ittay and Sirer, Emin G\"un. 2016
24
59.Anonymous alone? measuring Bitcoin’s second-generation anonymization techniques M\"oser, Malte and B\"ohme, Rainer. 2017
24
60.Increasing anonymity in bitcoin Saxena, Amitabh and Misra, Janardan and Dhar, Aritra. 2014
23
61.Escrow protocols for cryptocurrencies: How to buy physical goods using Bitcoin Goldfeder, Steven and Bonneau, Joseph and Gennaro, Rosario and Narayanan, Arvind.. 2017
22
62.A user-centric system for verified identities on the bitcoin blockchain Augot, Daniel and Chabanne, Herv\'e and Chenevier, Thomas and George, William and Lambert, Laurent. 2017
22
63.Refund attacks on Bitcoin’s payment protocol McCorry, Patrick and Shahandashti, Siamak F and Hao, Feng. 2016
21
64.Hierarchical deterministic Bitcoin wallets that tolerate key leakage Gutoski, Gus and Stebila, Douglas. 2015
21
65.BitML: a calculus for Bitcoin smart contracts Massimo Bartoletti and Roberto Zunino. 2018
20
66.SoK: unraveling Bitcoin smart contracts Nicola Atzei and Massimo Bartoletti and Tiziana Cimoli and Stefano Lande and Roberto Zunino. 2018
19
67.Constant-deposit multiparty lotteries on Bitcoin Bartoletti, Massimo and Zunino, Roberto. 2017
19
68.Why buy when you can rent? bribery attacks on bitcoin consensus Bonneau, Joseph and Felten, Edward W and Goldfeder, Steven and Kroll, Joshua A and Narayanan, Arvind. 2016
18
69.Analysis of Nakamoto Consensus Ling Ren. 2019
16
70.Revisiting Difficulty Control for Blockchain Systems Meshkov, Dmitry and Chepurnoy, Alexander and Jansen, Marc. 2017
14
71.Confidential assets Poelstra, Andrew and Back, Adam and Friedenbach, Mark and Maxwell, Gregory and Wuille, Pieter. 2018
13
72.On the Necessity of a Prescribed Block Validity Consensus: Analyzing Bitcoin Unlimited Mining Protocol Ren Zhang and Bart Preneel. 2017
11
73.Enhancing Bitcoin transactions with covenants O’Connor, Russell and Piekarska, Marta. 2017
10
74.Making bitcoin exchanges transparent Decker, Christian and Guthrie, James and Seidel, Jochen and Wattenhofer, Roger. 2015
10
75.eltoo: A simple layer2 protocol for bitcoin Decker, Christian and Russell, Rusty and Osuntokun, Olaoluwa. 2018
10
76.A Proof-of-Stake protocol for consensus on Bitcoin subchains Bartoletti, Massimo and Lande, Stefano and Podda, Alessandro Sebastian. 2017
8
77.Fun with Bitcoin smart contracts Massimo Bartoletti and Tiziana Cimoli and Roberto Zunino. 2018
7
78.Rootstock: Bitcoin powered smart contracts Lerner, S Demian. 2015
7
79.Biased Nonce Sense: Lattice Attacks against Weak ECDSA Signatures in Cryptocurrencies Breitner, Joachim and Heninger, Nadia. 2019
6
80.TxProbe: Discovering Bitcoin's Network Topology Using Orphan Transactions Delgado-Segura, Sergi and Bakshi, Surya and P\'erez-Sol\`a, Cristina and Litton, James and Pachulski, Andrew and Miller, Andrew and Bhattacharjee, Bobby. 2018
6
81.SABRE: Protecting Bitcoin against Routing Attacks Apostolaki, Maria and Marti, Gian and M\"uller, Jan and Vanbever, Laurent. 2018
5
82.Verifying liquidity of Bitcoin contracts Bartoletti, Massimo and Zunino, Roberto. 2018
5
83.How perfect offline wallets can still leak bitcoin private keys Verb\"ucheln, Stephan. 2015
5
84.Using level-1 homomorphic encryption to improve threshold dsa signatures for bitcoin wallet security Boneh, Dan and Gennaro, Rosario and Goldfeder, Steven. 2017
5
85.How to Charge Lightning Br\^anzei, Simina and Segal-Halevi, Erel and Zohar, Aviv. 2017
4
86.FastKitten: Practical Smart Contracts on Bitcoin Das, Poulami and Eckey, Lisa and Frassetto, Tommaso and Gens, David and Host\'akov\'a, Kristina and Jauernig, Patrick and Faust, Sebastian and Sadeghi, Ahmad-Reza. 2019
4
87.Paralysis Proofs: Safe Access-Structure Updates for Cryptocurrencies and More Fan Zhang and Philip Daian and Iddo Bentov and Ari Juels. 2018
2
88.Mimblewimble Poelstra, Andrew. 2016
2
89.Mixing Confidential Transactions: Comprehensive Transaction Privacy for Bitcoin. Ruffing, Tim and Moreno-Sanchez, Pedro. 2017
2
90.Scalable lightning factories for Bitcoin Alejandro Ranchal Pedrosa and Maria Potop-Butucaru and Sara Tucci Piergiovanni. 2019
1
91.Tracing Transactions Across Cryptocurrency Ledgers Yousaf, Haaroon and Kappos, George and Meiklejohn, Sarah. 2018
1
92.Lightning Factories Pedrosa, Alejandro Ranchal and Potop-Butucaru, Maria and Tucci-Piergiovanni, Sara. 2019
1
93.Bitcontracts: Adding Expressive Smart Contracts to Legacy Cryptocurrencies Karl Wüst and Loris Diana and Kari Kostiainen and Ghassan Karame and Sinisa Matetic and Srdjan Capkun. 2019
1
94.Bandwidth-Efficient Transaction Relay for Bitcoin Naumenko, Gleb and Maxwell, Gregory and Wuille, Pieter and Fedorova, Sasha and Beschastnikh, Ivan. 2019
1
95.Contractvm: decentralized applications on Bitcoin Bartoletti, Massimo and Gessa, Davide and Podda, Alessandro Sebastian. 2018
0
96.A New Look at the Refund Mechanism in the Bitcoin Payment Protocol Avizheh, Sepideh and Safavi-Naini, Reihaneh and Shahandashti, Siamak F. 2018
0
97.A Composable Security Treatment of the Lightning Network Aggelos Kiayias and Orfeas Stefanos Thyfronitis Litos. 2019
0
98.A Stealthier Partitioning Attack against Bitcoin Peer-to-Peer Network Tran, Muoi and Choi, Inho and Moon, Gi Jun and Vu, Anh V and Kang, Min Suk. 2020
0
99.Hijacking Routes in Payment Channel Networks: A Predictability Tradeoff Saar Tochner and Stefan Schmid and Aviv Zohar. 2019
0
100.ShareLock: Mixing for Cryptocurrencies from Multiparty ECDSA Shlomovits, Omer and Seres, Istv\'an Andr\'as. 2019
0
101.12 Angry Miners Eghbali, Aryaz and Wattenhofer, Roger. 2019
0
102.Cerberus Channels: Incentivizing Watchtowers for Bitcoin Georgia Avarikioti and Orfeas Stefanos Thyfronitis Litos and Roger Wattenhofer. 2019
0
103.Prism: Scaling Bitcoin by 10,000 x Yang, Lei and Bagaria, Vivek and Wang, Gerui and Alizadeh, Mohammad and Tse, David and Fanti, Giulia and Viswanath, Pramod. 2019
0
104.The Bitcoin Backbone Protocol Against Quantum Adversaries Alexandru Cojocaru and Juan Garay and Aggelos Kiayias and Fang Song and Petros Wallden. 2019
0
105.LockDown: Balance Availability Attack against Lightning Network Channels Cristina Pérez-Solà and Alejandro Ranchal-Pedrosa and Jordi Herrera-Joancomartí and Guillermo Navarro-Arribas and Joaquin Garcia-Alfaro. 2019
0
106.Cascading Machine Learning to Attack Bitcoin Anonymity Zola, Francesco and Eguimendia, Maria and Bruse, Jan Lukas and Urrutia, Raul Orduna. 2019
0