A curated list of papers ordered by number of citations. Last updated 2020-02-25

#Title
Citations
1.Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System Nakamoto, Satoshi. 2008
9367
2.Mastering Bitcoin: unlocking digital cryptocurrencies Antonopoulos, Andreas M. 2014
1147
3.Decentralizing privacy: Using blockchain to protect personal data Zyskind, Guy and Nathan, Oz and others. 2015
1099
4.Bitcoin and cryptocurrency technologies: a comprehensive introduction Narayanan, Arvind and Bonneau, Joseph and Felten, Edward and Miller, Andrew and Goldfeder, Steven. 2016
966
5.Zerocash: Decentralized anonymous payments from bitcoin Ben-Sasson, Eli and Chiesa, Alessandro and Garman, Christina and Green, Matthew and Miers, Ian and Tromer, Eran and Virza, Madars. 2014
894
6.A fistful of bitcoins: characterizing payments among men with no names Meiklejohn, Sarah and Pomarole, Marjori and Jordan, Grant and Levchenko, Kirill and McCoy, Damon and Voelker, Geoffrey M and Savage, Stefan. 2013
825
7.Information propagation in the Bitcoin network Decker, Christian and Wattenhofer, Roger. 2013
706
8.The quest for scalable blockchain fabric: Proof-of-work vs. BFT replication Vukolić, Marko. 2015
602
9.Bitter to better - How to make bitcoin a better currency Barber, Simon and Boyen, Xavier and Shi, Elaine and Uzun, Ersin. 2012
591
10.Evaluating user privacy in bitcoin Androulaki, Elli and Karame, Ghassan O and Roeschlin, Marc and Scherer, Tobias and Capkun, Srdjan. 2013
487
11.The bitcoin lightning network: Scalable off-chain instant payments Poon, Joseph and Dryja, Thaddeus. 2016
459
12.The economics of Bitcoin mining, or Bitcoin in the presence of adversaries Kroll, Joshua A and Davey, Ian C and Felten, Edward W. 2013
435
13.Enhancing bitcoin security and performance with strong consistency via collective signing Kogias, Eleftherios Kokoris and Jovanovic, Philipp and Gailly, Nicolas and Khoffi, Ismail and Gasser, Linus and Ford, Bryan. 2016
360
14.Deanonymisation of clients in Bitcoin P2P network Biryukov, Alex and Khovratovich, Dmitry and Pustogarov, Ivan. 2014
294
15.A survey on security and privacy issues of bitcoin Conti, Mauro and Kumar, E Sandeep and Lal, Chhagan and Ruj, Sushmita. 2018
277
16.On Bitcoin and red balloons Babaioff, Moshe and Dobzinski, Shahar and Oren, Sigal and Zohar, Aviv. 2011
249
17.Analysis of Hashrate-Based Double Spending Rosenfeld, Meni. 2014
244
18.Is bitcoin a decentralized currency? Gervais, Arthur and Karame, Ghassan O and Capkun, Vedran and Capkun, Srdjan. 2014
220
19.Hijacking bitcoin: Routing attacks on cryptocurrencies Apostolaki, Maria and Zohar, Aviv and Vanbever, Laurent. 2017
191
20.On the instability of bitcoin without the block reward Carlsten, Miles and Kalodner, Harry and Weinberg, S Matthew and Narayanan, Arvind. 2016
162
21.On Subversive Miner Strategies and Block Withholding Attack in Bitcoin Digital Currency Courtois, Nicolas T and Bahack, Lear. 2013
152
22.Difficulty control for blockchain-based consensus systems Kraft, Daniel. 2016
137
23.Have a Snack, Pay with Bitcoins Bamert, Tobias and Decker, Christian and Elsen, Lennart and Wattenhofer, Roger and Welten, Samuel. 2013
134
24.Game-theoretic analysis of DDoS attacks against Bitcoin mining pools Johnson, Benjamin and Laszka, Aron and Grossklags, Jens and Vasek, Marie and Moore, Tyler. 2014
134
25.Empirical analysis of denial-of-service attacks in the Bitcoin ecosystem Vasek, Marie and Thornton, Micah and Moore, Tyler. 2014
128
26.Decentralization in bitcoin and ethereum networks Gencer, Adem Efe and Basu, Soumya and Eyal, Ittay and Van Renesse, Robbert and Sirer, Emin G\"un. 2018
122
27.TumbleBit: An untrusted Bitcoin-compatible anonymous payment hub Heilman, Ethan and Alshenibr, Leen and Baldimtsi, Foteini and Scafuro, Alessandra and Goldberg, Sharon. 2017
115
28.Proof-of-Burn Kostis Karantias and Aggelos Kiayias and Dionysis Zindros. 2019
101
29.On Bitcoin as a public randomness source. Bonneau, Joseph and Clark, Jeremy and Goldfeder, Steven. 2015
99
30.The Bitcoin Backbone Protocol with Chains of Variable Difficulty Juan A. Garay and Aggelos Kiayias and Nikos Leonardos. 2016
98
31.On power splitting games in distributed computation: The case of bitcoin pooled mining Luu, Loi and Saha, Ratul and Parameshwaran, Inian and Saxena, Prateek and Hobor, Aquinas. 2015
98
32.Blindly signed contracts: Anonymous on-blockchain and off-blockchain bitcoin transactions Heilman, Ethan and Baldimtsi, Foteini and Goldberg, Sharon. 2016
95
33.Threshold-optimal DSA/ECDSA signatures and an application to Bitcoin wallet security Gennaro, Rosario and Goldfeder, Steven and Narayanan, Arvind. 2016
94
34.Incentive Compatibility of Bitcoin Mining Pool Reward Functions Schrijvers, Okke and Bonneau, Joseph and Boneh, Dan and Roughgarden, Tim. 2016
89
35.Theoretical Bitcoin Attacks with less than Half of the Computational Power (draft) Lear Bahack. 2013
86
36.Nonoutsourceable scratch-off puzzles to discourage bitcoin mining coalitions Miller, Andrew and Kosba, Ahmed and Katz, Jonathan and Shi, Elaine. 2015
84
37.How to use bitcoin to play decentralized poker Kumaresan, Ranjit and Moran, Tal and Bentov, Iddo. 2015
73
38.Concurrency and privacy with payment-channel networks Malavolta, Giulio and Moreno-Sanchez, Pedro and Kate, Aniket and Maffei, Matteo and Ravi, Srivatsan. 2017
72
39.Trends, tips, tolls: A longitudinal study of Bitcoin transaction fees M\"oser, Malte and B\"ohme, Rainer. 2015
72
40.When bitcoin mining pools run dry Laszka, Aron and Johnson, Benjamin and Grossklags, Jens. 2015
67
41.Bitcoin as a Transaction Ledger: A Composable Treatment Christian Badertscher and Ueli Maurer and Daniel Tschudi and Vassilis Zikas. 2017
55
42.On the Malleability of Bitcoin Transactions Marcin Andrychowicz and Stefan Dziembowski and Daniel Malinowski and Lukasz Mazurek. 2015
54
43.P2P Mixing and Unlinkable Bitcoin Transactions. Ruffing, Tim and Moreno-Sanchez, Pedro and Kate, Aniket. 2017
53
44.How did dread pirate roberts acquire and protect his bitcoin wealth? Ron, Dorit and Shamir, Adi. 2014
52
45.Bitcoin's security model revisited Sompolinsky, Yonatan and Zohar, Aviv. 2016
51
46.Simple schnorr multi-signatures with applications to bitcoin Maxwell, Gregory and Poelstra, Andrew and Seurin, Yannick and Wuille, Pieter. 2018
50
47.Liar, liar, coins on fire!: Penalizing equivocation by loss of bitcoins Ruffing, Tim and Kate, Aniket and Schr\"oder, Dominique. 2015
47
48.Flare: An approach to routing in lightning network Prihodko, Pavel and Zhigulin, Slava and Sahno, Mykola and Ostrovskiy, Aleksei and Osuntokun, Olaoluwa. 2016
44
49.Towards bitcoin payment networks McCorry, Patrick and M\"oser, Malte and Shahandasti, Siamak F and Hao, Feng. 2016
44
50.Publish or Perish: A Backward-Compatible Defense against Selfish Mining in Bitcoin Zhang, Ren and Preneel, Bart. 2017
41
51.Validation of decentralised smart contracts through game theory and formal methods Bigi, Giancarlo and Bracciali, Andrea and Meacci, Giovanni and Tuosto, Emilio. 2015
40
52.When cryptocurrencies mine their own business Teutsch, Jason and Jain, Sanjay and Saxena, Prateek. 2016
37
53.Strong federations: An interoperable blockchain solution to centralized third-party risks Dilley, Johnny and Poelstra, Andrew and Wilkins, Jonathan and Piekarska, Marta and Gorlick, Ben and Friedenbach, Mark. 2016
36
54.Securing Bitcoin wallets via a new DSA/ECDSA threshold signature scheme Goldfeder, Steven and Gennaro, Rosario and Kalodner, Harry and Bonneau, Joseph and Kroll, Joshua A and Felten, Edward W and Narayanan, Arvind. 2015
34
55.Incentivizing blockchain forks via whale transactions Liao, Kevin and Katz, Jonathan. 2017
33
56.Smart contracts make bitcoin mining pools vulnerable Velner, Yaron and Teutsch, Jason and Luu, Loi. 2017
31
57.Bitcoin covenants M\"oser, Malte and Eyal, Ittay and Sirer, Emin G\"un. 2016
30
58.Modeling bitcoin contracts by timed automata Andrychowicz, Marcin and Dziembowski, Stefan and Malinowski, Daniel and Mazurek, \Lukasz. 2014
29
59.Hierarchical deterministic Bitcoin wallets that tolerate key leakage Gutoski, Gus and Stebila, Douglas. 2015
28
60.Increasing anonymity in bitcoin Saxena, Amitabh and Misra, Janardan and Dhar, Aritra. 2014
28
61.Anonymous alone? measuring Bitcoin’s second-generation anonymization techniques M\"oser, Malte and B\"ohme, Rainer. 2017
27
62.Revisiting Difficulty Control for Blockchain Systems Meshkov, Dmitry and Chepurnoy, Alexander and Jansen, Marc. 2017
26
63.A user-centric system for verified identities on the bitcoin blockchain Augot, Daniel and Chabanne, Herv\'e and Chenevier, Thomas and George, William and Lambert, Laurent. 2017
26
64.Refund attacks on Bitcoin’s payment protocol McCorry, Patrick and Shahandashti, Siamak F and Hao, Feng. 2016
25
65.Escrow protocols for cryptocurrencies: How to buy physical goods using Bitcoin Goldfeder, Steven and Bonneau, Joseph and Gennaro, Rosario and Narayanan, Arvind.. 2017
23
66.BitML: a calculus for Bitcoin smart contracts Massimo Bartoletti and Roberto Zunino. 2018
22
67.Constant-deposit multiparty lotteries on Bitcoin Bartoletti, Massimo and Zunino, Roberto. 2017
21
68.Why buy when you can rent? bribery attacks on bitcoin consensus Bonneau, Joseph and Felten, Edward W and Goldfeder, Steven and Kroll, Joshua A and Narayanan, Arvind. 2016
20
69.Confidential assets Poelstra, Andrew and Back, Adam and Friedenbach, Mark and Maxwell, Gregory and Wuille, Pieter. 2018
19
70.Analysis of Nakamoto Consensus Ling Ren. 2019
18
71.eltoo: A simple layer2 protocol for bitcoin Decker, Christian and Russell, Rusty and Osuntokun, Olaoluwa. 2018
17
72.On the Necessity of a Prescribed Block Validity Consensus: Analyzing Bitcoin Unlimited Mining Protocol Ren Zhang and Bart Preneel. 2017
14
73.Enhancing Bitcoin transactions with covenants O’Connor, Russell and Piekarska, Marta. 2017
12
74.Making bitcoin exchanges transparent Decker, Christian and Guthrie, James and Seidel, Jochen and Wattenhofer, Roger. 2015
12
75.TxProbe: Discovering Bitcoin's Network Topology Using Orphan Transactions Delgado-Segura, Sergi and Bakshi, Surya and P\'erez-Sol\`a, Cristina and Litton, James and Pachulski, Andrew and Miller, Andrew and Bhattacharjee, Bobby. 2018
11
76.Biased Nonce Sense: Lattice Attacks against Weak ECDSA Signatures in Cryptocurrencies Breitner, Joachim and Heninger, Nadia. 2019
10
77.A Proof-of-Stake protocol for consensus on Bitcoin subchains Bartoletti, Massimo and Lande, Stefano and Podda, Alessandro Sebastian. 2017
10
78.Using level-1 homomorphic encryption to improve threshold dsa signatures for bitcoin wallet security Boneh, Dan and Gennaro, Rosario and Goldfeder, Steven. 2017
9
79.Fun with Bitcoin smart contracts Massimo Bartoletti and Tiziana Cimoli and Roberto Zunino. 2018
8
80.Rootstock: Bitcoin powered smart contracts Lerner, S Demian. 2015
8
81.SABRE: Protecting Bitcoin against Routing Attacks Apostolaki, Maria and Marti, Gian and M\"uller, Jan and Vanbever, Laurent. 2018
7
82.FastKitten: Practical Smart Contracts on Bitcoin Das, Poulami and Eckey, Lisa and Frassetto, Tommaso and Gens, David and Host\'akov\'a, Kristina and Jauernig, Patrick and Faust, Sebastian and Sadeghi, Ahmad-Reza. 2019
7
83.Atomic multi-channel updates with constant collateral in bitcoin-compatible payment-channel networks Egger, Christoph and Moreno-Sanchez, Pedro and Maffei, Matteo. 2019
7
84.How to Charge Lightning Br\^anzei, Simina and Segal-Halevi, Erel and Zohar, Aviv. 2017
6
85.Mimblewimble Poelstra, Andrew. 2016
6
86.How perfect offline wallets can still leak bitcoin private keys Verb\"ucheln, Stephan. 2015
6
87.Partitioning Attacks on Bitcoin: Colliding Space, Time and Logic Saad, Muhammad and Cook, Victor and Nguyen, Lan and Thai, My T and Mohaisen, Aziz. 2019
6
88.Tracing Transactions Across Cryptocurrency Ledgers Yousaf, Haaroon and Kappos, George and Meiklejohn, Sarah. 2018
5
89.Verifying liquidity of Bitcoin contracts Bartoletti, Massimo and Zunino, Roberto. 2018
5
90.Paralysis Proofs: Safe Access-Structure Updates for Cryptocurrencies and More Fan Zhang and Philip Daian and Iddo Bentov and Ari Juels. 2018
3
91.Mixing Confidential Transactions: Comprehensive Transaction Privacy for Bitcoin. Ruffing, Tim and Moreno-Sanchez, Pedro. 2017
3
92.Lightning Factories Pedrosa, Alejandro Ranchal and Potop-Butucaru, Maria and Tucci-Piergiovanni, Sara. 2019
3
93.A Composable Security Treatment of the Lightning Network Aggelos Kiayias and Orfeas Stefanos Thyfronitis Litos. 2019
2
94.ShareLock: Mixing for Cryptocurrencies from Multiparty ECDSA Shlomovits, Omer and Seres, Istv\'an Andr\'as. 2019
2
95.Bandwidth-Efficient Transaction Relay for Bitcoin Naumenko, Gleb and Maxwell, Gregory and Wuille, Pieter and Fedorova, Sasha and Beschastnikh, Ivan. 2019
2
96.A percolation model for the emergence of the Bitcoin Lightning Network Bartolucci, Silvia and Caccioli, Fabio and Vivo, Pierpaolo. 2019
2
97.A New Look at the Refund Mechanism in the Bitcoin Payment Protocol Avizheh, Sepideh and Safavi-Naini, Reihaneh and Shahandashti, Siamak F. 2018
1
98.Bitcontracts: Adding Expressive Smart Contracts to Legacy Cryptocurrencies Karl Wüst and Loris Diana and Kari Kostiainen and Ghassan Karame and Sinisa Matetic and Srdjan Capkun. 2019
1
99.Hijacking Routes in Payment Channel Networks: A Predictability Tradeoff Saar Tochner and Stefan Schmid and Aviv Zohar. 2019
1
100.Cerberus Channels: Incentivizing Watchtowers for Bitcoin Georgia Avarikioti and Orfeas Stefanos Thyfronitis Litos and Roger Wattenhofer. 2019
1
101.Prism: Scaling Bitcoin by 10,000 x Yang, Lei and Bagaria, Vivek and Wang, Gerui and Alizadeh, Mohammad and Tse, David and Fanti, Giulia and Viswanath, Pramod. 2019
1
102.The Bitcoin Backbone Protocol Against Quantum Adversaries Alexandru Cojocaru and Juan Garay and Aggelos Kiayias and Fang Song and Petros Wallden. 2019
1
103.LockDown: Balance Availability Attack against Lightning Network Channels Cristina Pérez-Solà and Alejandro Ranchal-Pedrosa and Jordi Herrera-Joancomartí and Guillermo Navarro-Arribas and Joaquin Garcia-Alfaro. 2019
1
104.Cascading Machine Learning to Attack Bitcoin Anonymity Zola, Francesco and Eguimendia, Maria and Bruse, Jan Lukas and Urrutia, Raul Orduna. 2019
1
105.Number of confirmation blocks for Bitcoin and GHOST consensus protocols on networks with delayed message delivery Kovalchuk, Lyudmila and Kaidalov, Dmytro and Nastenko, Andrii and Shevtsov, Oleksiy and Rodinko, Mariia and Oliynykov, Roman. 2018
1
106.On the optionality and fairness of Atomic Swaps Han, Runchao and Lin, Haoyu and Yu, Jiangshan. 2019
1
107.Developing secure Bitcoin contracts with BitML Atzei, Nicola and Bartoletti, Massimo and Lande, Stefano and Yoshida, Nobuko and Zunino, Roberto. 2019
1
108.Scalable lightning factories for Bitcoin Alejandro Ranchal Pedrosa and Maria Potop-Butucaru and Sara Tucci Piergiovanni. 2019
0
109.SoK: unraveling Bitcoin smart contracts Nicola Atzei and Massimo Bartoletti and Tiziana Cimoli and Stefano Lande and Roberto Zunino. 2018
0
110.Contractvm: decentralized applications on Bitcoin Bartoletti, Massimo and Gessa, Davide and Podda, Alessandro Sebastian. 2018
0
111.A Stealthier Partitioning Attack against Bitcoin Peer-to-Peer Network Tran, Muoi and Choi, Inho and Moon, Gi Jun and Vu, Anh V and Kang, Min Suk. 2020
0
112.12 Angry Miners Eghbali, Aryaz and Wattenhofer, Roger. 2019
0
113.On Profitability of Nakamoto double spend Grunspan, Cyril and P\'erez-Marco, Ricardo. 2019
0
114.The Arwen Trading Protocols (Full Version) Ethan Heilman and Sebastien Lipmann and Sharon Goldberg. 2020
0
115.Coalition-Safe Equilibria with Virtual Payoffs Kiayias, Aggelos and Stouka, Aikaterini-Panagiota. 2019
0
116.Characterizing Orphan Transactions in the Bitcoin Network Imtiaz, Muhammad Anas and Starobinski, David and Trachtenberg, Ari. 2019
0
117.Bitcoin Crypto–Bounties for Quantum Capable Adversaries Dragos Ioan Ilie and Kostis Karantias and William J. Knottenbelt. 2020
0
118.Committing to Quantum Resistance, Better: A Speed–and–Risk–Configurable Defence for Bitcoin against a Fast Quantum Computing Attack Dragos Ioan Ilie and William J. Knottenbelt and Iain Stewart. 2020
0