A curated list of papers ordered by number of citations. Last updated 2019-12-10

#Title
Citations
1.Blockchains and smart contracts for the internet of things Christidis, Konstantinos and Devetsikiotis, Michael. 2016
1419
2.Hawk: The blockchain model of cryptography and privacy-preserving smart contracts Kosba, Ahmed and Miller, Andrew and Shi, Elaine and Wen, Zikai and Papamanthou, Charalampos. 2016
960
3.Bitcoin and cryptocurrency technologies: a comprehensive introduction Narayanan, Arvind and Bonneau, Joseph and Felten, Edward and Miller, Andrew and Goldfeder, Steven. 2016
850
4.Bitcoin-NG: A Scalable Blockchain Protocol Eyal, Ittay and Gencer, Adem Efe and Sirer, Emin Gün and van Renesse, Robbert. 2016
641
5.Making smart contracts smarter Luu, Loi and Chu, Duc-Hiep and Olickel, Hrishi and Saxena, Prateek and Hobor, Aquinas. 2016
609
6.On Scaling Decentralized Blockchains Croman, Kyle and Decker, Christian and Eyal, Ittay and Gencer, Adem Efe and Juels, Ari and Kosba, Ahmed and Miller, Andrew and Saxena, Prateek and Shi, Elaine and Gün Sirer, Emin. 2016
608
7.On the security and performance of proof of work blockchains Gervais, Arthur and Karame, Ghassan O and W\"ust, Karl and Glykantzis, Vasileios and Ritzdorf, Hubert and Capkun, Srdjan. 2016
505
8.The bitcoin lightning network: Scalable off-chain instant payments Poon, Joseph and Dryja, Thaddeus. 2016
395
9.Algorand Chen, Jing and Micali, Silvio. 2016
364
10.Enhancing bitcoin security and performance with strong consistency via collective signing Kogias, Eleftherios Kokoris and Jovanovic, Philipp and Gailly, Nicolas and Khoffi, Ismail and Gasser, Linus and Ford, Bryan. 2016
324
11.A secure sharding protocol for open blockchains Luu, Loi and Narayanan, Viswesh and Zheng, Chaodong and Baweja, Kunal and Gilbert, Seth and Saxena, Prateek. 2016
321
12.Step by step towards creating a safe smart contract: Lessons and insights from a cryptocurrency lab Delmolino, Kevin and Arnett, Mitchell and Kosba, Ahmed and Miller, Andrew and Shi, Elaine. 2016
304
13.Analysis of the Blockchain Protocol in Asynchronous Networks Pass, Rafael and Seeman, Lior and abhi Shelat. 2016
289
14.Formal verification of smart contracts: Short paper Bhargavan, Karthikeyan and Delignat-Lavaud, Antoine and Fournet, C\'edric and Gollamudi, Anitha and Gonthier, Georges and Kobeissi, Nadim and Kulatova, Natalia and Rastogi, Aseem and Sibut-Pinote, Thomas and Swamy, Nikhil and others. 2016
256
15.Town crier: An authenticated data feed for smart contracts Zhang, Fan and Cecchetti, Ethan and Croman, Kyle and Juels, Ari and Shi, Elaine. 2016
243
16.The honey badger of BFT protocols Miller, Andrew and Xia, Yu and Croman, Kyle and Shi, Elaine and Song, Dawn. 2016
241
17.Cryptocurrencies without proof of work Bentov, Iddo and Gabizon, Ariel and Mizrahi, Alex. 2016
200
18.On the instability of bitcoin without the block reward Carlsten, Miles and Kalodner, Harry and Weinberg, S Matthew and Narayanan, Arvind. 2016
152
19.Fruitchains: A fair blockchain Pass, Rafael and Shi, Elaine. 2016
136
20.Snow White: Provably Secure Proofs of Stake. Bentov, Iddo and Pass, Rafael and Shi, Elaine. 2016
128
21.Difficulty control for blockchain-based consensus systems Kraft, Daniel. 2016
126
22.Tendermint: Byzantine fault tolerance in the age of blockchains Buchman, Ethan. 2016
126
23.On the size of pairing-based non-interactive arguments Groth, Jens. 2016
117
24.The ring of gyges: Investigating the future of criminal smart contracts Juels, Ari and Kosba, Ahmed and Shi, Elaine. 2016
92
25.Blindly signed contracts: Anonymous on-blockchain and off-blockchain bitcoin transactions Heilman, Ethan and Baldimtsi, Foteini and Goldberg, Sharon. 2016
89
26.The Bitcoin Backbone Protocol with Chains of Variable Difficulty Juan A. Garay and Aggelos Kiayias and Nikos Leonardos. 2016
87
27.ZKBoo: Faster Zero-Knowledge for Boolean Circuits. Giacomelli, Irene and Madsen, Jesper and Orlandi, Claudio. 2016
83
28.Threshold-optimal DSA/ECDSA signatures and an application to Bitcoin wallet security Gennaro, Rosario and Goldfeder, Steven and Narayanan, Arvind. 2016
82
29.Incentive Compatibility of Bitcoin Mining Pool Reward Functions Schrijvers, Okke and Bonneau, Joseph and Boneh, Dan and Roughgarden, Tim. 2016
80
30.Zcash protocol specification Hopwood, Daira and Bowe, Sean and Hornby, Taylor and Wilcox, Nathan. 2016
70
31.Efficient zero-knowledge arguments for arithmetic circuits in the discrete log setting Bootle, Jonathan and Cerulli, Andrea and Chaidos, Pyrros and Groth, Jens and Petit, Christophe. 2016
57
32.On Trees, Chains and Fast Transactions in the Blockchain Kiayias, Aggelos and Panagiotakos, Giorgos. 2016
56
33.Solidus: An Incentive-compatible Cryptocurrency Based on Permissionless Byzantine Consensus Abraham, Ittai and Malkhi, Dahlia and Nayak, Kartik and Ren, Ling and Spiegelman, Alexander. 2016
53
34.Accountable privacy for decentralized anonymous payments Garman, Christina and Green, Matthew and Miers, Ian. 2016
49
35.Sealed-Glass Proofs: Using Transparent Enclaves to Prove and Sell Knowledge. Tramer, Florian and Zhang, Fan and Lin, Huang and Hubaux, Jean-Pierre and Juels, Ari and Shi, Elaine. 2016
48
36.Polkadot: Vision for a heterogeneous multi-chain framework Wood, Gavin. 2016
46
37.EthIKS: Using Ethereum to audit a CONIKS key transparency log Bonneau, Joseph. 2016
45
38.Bitcoin's security model revisited Sompolinsky, Yonatan and Zohar, Aviv. 2016
44
39.Balloon Hashing: A Memory-Hard Function Providing Provable Protection Against Sequential Attacks Boneh, Dan and Corrigan-Gibbs, Henry and Schechter, Stuart. 2016
40
40.Chain interoperability Buterin, Vitalik. 2016
40
41.Towards bitcoin payment networks McCorry, Patrick and M\"oser, Malte and Shahandasti, Siamak F and Hao, Feng. 2016
38
42.Setting standards for altering and undoing smart contracts Marino, Bill and Juels, Ari. 2016
37
43.Cosmos: A network of distributed ledgers Kwon, Jae and Buchman, Ethan. 2016
36
44.When cryptocurrencies mine their own business Teutsch, Jason and Jain, Sanjay and Saxena, Prateek. 2016
34
45.Flare: An approach to routing in lightning network Prihodko, Pavel and Zhigulin, Slava and Sahno, Mykola and Ostrovskiy, Aleksei and Osuntokun, Olaoluwa. 2016
34
46.Listening to whispers of ripple: Linking wallets and deanonymizing transactions in the ripple network Moreno-Sanchez, Pedro and Zafar, Muhammad Bilal and Kate, Aniket. 2016
31
47.Strong federations: An interoperable blockchain solution to centralized third-party risks Dilley, Johnny and Poelstra, Andrew and Wilkins, Jonathan and Piekarska, Marta and Gorlick, Ben and Friedenbach, Mark. 2016
30
48.Zero-Collateral Lotteries in Bitcoin and Ethereum Miller, Andrew and Bentov, Iddo. 2016
27
49.Bitcoin covenants M\"oser, Malte and Eyal, Ittay and Sirer, Emin G\"un. 2016
25
50.Quasi-linear size zero knowledge from linear-algebraic PCPs Ben-Sasson, Eli and Chiesa, Alessandro and Gabizon, Ariel and Virza, Madars. 2016
25
51.IKP: Turning a PKI Around with Blockchains Stephanos Matsumoto and Raphael M. Reischuk. 2016
22
52.SPECTRE: Serialization of Proof-of-work Events: Confirming Transactions via Recursive Elections Sompolinsky, Yonatan and Lewenberg, Yoad and Zohar, Aviv. 2016
22
53.Refund attacks on Bitcoin’s payment protocol McCorry, Patrick and Shahandashti, Siamak F and Hao, Feng. 2016
21
54.Proofs of Proofs of Work with Sublinear Complexity Kiayias, Aggelos and Lamprou, Nikolaos and Stouka, Aikaterini-Panagiota. 2016
19
55.Why buy when you can rent? bribery attacks on bitcoin consensus Bonneau, Joseph and Felten, Edward W and Goldfeder, Steven and Kroll, Joshua A and Narayanan, Arvind. 2016
18
56.Improving Authenticated Dynamic Dictionaries, with Applications to Cryptocurrencies Reyzin, Leonid and Meshkov, Dmitry and Chepurnoy, Alexander and Ivanov, Sasha. 2016
17
57.Formal verification of Deed contract in Ethereum name service Hirai, Yoichi. 2016
16
58.Service-Oriented Sharding with Aspen Gencer, Adem Efe and van Renesse, Robbert and Sirer, Emin G\"un. 2016
15
59.Interledger: Creating a standard for payments Hope-Bailie, Adrian and Thomas, Stefan. 2016
15
60.Blockchain-Free Cryptocurrencies: A Framework for Truly Decentralised Fast Transactions Boyen, Xavier and Carr, Christopher and Haines, Thomas. 2016
13
61.The Bitcoin brain drain: a short paper on the use and abuse of bitcoin brain wallets Vasek, Marie and Bonneau, Joseph and Castellucci, Ryan and Keith, Cameron and Moore, Tyler. 2016
11
62.Drivechains, sidechains and hybrid 2-way peg designs Lerner, Sergio Damian. 2016
11
63.Automated Verification of Electrum Wallet Mathieu Turuani and Thomas Voegtlin and Micha\"el Rusinowitch. 2016
8
64.Swap, Swear, and Swindle: Incentive System for Swarm Tr\'on, Viktor and Fischer, Aron and Nagy, D\'aniel A and Felf\"oldi, Zsolt and Johnson, Nick. 2016
8
65.Mimblewimble Poelstra, Andrew. 2016
3