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A curated list of papers ordered by number of citations. Last updated 2019-05-13

1.On Scaling Decentralized Blockchains Croman, Kyle and Decker, Christian and Eyal, Ittay and Gencer, Adem Efe and Juels, Ari and Kosba, Ahmed and Miller, Andrew and Saxena, Prateek and Shi, Elaine and Gün Sirer, Emin. 2016
2.The bitcoin lightning network: Scalable off-chain instant payments Poon, Joseph and Dryja, Thaddeus. 2016
3.A secure sharding protocol for open blockchains Luu, Loi and Narayanan, Viswesh and Zheng, Chaodong and Baweja, Kunal and Gilbert, Seth and Saxena, Prateek. 2016
4.Hybrid consensus: Efficient consensus in the permissionless model Pass, Rafael and Shi, Elaine. 2017
5.Plasma: Scalable Autonomous Smart Contracts Poon, Joseph and Buterin, Vitalik. 2017
6.Omniledger: A secure, scale-out, decentralized ledger via sharding Kokoris-Kogias, Eleftherios and Jovanovic, Philipp and Gasser, Linus and Gailly, Nicolas and Syta, Ewa and Ford, Bryan. 2018
7.Chainspace: A Sharded Smart Contracts Platform Al-Bassam, Mustafa and Sonnino, Alberto and Bano, Shehar and Hrycyszyn, Dave and Danezis, George. 2017
8.A scalable verification solution for blockchains Teutsch, Jason and Reitwie\ssner, Christian. 2017
9.Rethinking Large-Scale Consensus Rafael Pass and Elaine Shi. 2018
10.Arbitrum: scalable, private smart contracts Kalodner, Harry and Goldfeder, Steven and Chen, Xiaoqi and Weinberg, S Matthew and Felten, Edward W. 2018
11.Service-Oriented Sharding with Aspen Gencer, Adem Efe and van Renesse, Robbert and Sirer, Emin G\"un. 2016
12.RapidChain: A Fast Blockchain Protocol via Full Sharding Mahdi Zamani and Mahnush Movahedi and Mariana Raykova. 2018
13.NOCUST--A Non-Custodial 2 nd-Layer Financial Intermediary Khalil, Rami and Gervais, Arthur. 2018
14.Blockclique: scaling blockchains through transaction sharding in a multithreaded block graph Forestier, S\'ebastien. 2018
15.Deconstructing the Blockchain to Approach Physical Limits Bagaria, Vivek and Kannan, Sreeram and Tse, David and Fanti, Giulia and Viswanath, Pramod. 2018
16.Teechain: Reducing storage costs on the blockchain with offline payment channels Lind, Joshua and Naor, Oded and Eyal, Ittay and Kelbert, Florian and Pietzuch, Peter and Sirer, Emin G\"un. 2018
17.Z-Channel: Scalable and Efficient Scheme in Zerocash Yuncong Zhang and Yu Long and Zhen Liu and Zhiqiang Liu and Dawu Gu. 2017
18.Fraud Proofs: Maximising Light Client Security and Scaling Blockchains with Dishonest Majorities Al-Bassam, Mustafa and Sonnino, Alberto and Buterin, Vitalik. 2018
19.Parallel Chains: Improving Throughput and Latency of Blockchain Protocols via Parallel Composition Fitzi, Matthias and Gazi, Peter and Kiayias, Aggelos and Russell, Alexander. 2018
20.piChain: When a Blockchain meets Paxos Burchert, Conrad and Wattenhofer, Roger. 2018
21.Sharding PoW-based Blockchains via Proofs of Knowledge Frederik Armknecht and Jens-Matthias Bohli and Ghassan O. Karame and Wenting Li. 2017
22.You sank my battleship! A case study to evaluate state channels as a scaling solution for cryptocurrencies McCorry, Patrick and Buckland, Chris and Bakshi, Surya and W\"ust, Karl and Miller, Andrew. 2018
23.OHIE: Blockchain Scaling Made Simple Yu, Haifeng and Nikolic, Ivica and Hou, Ruomu and Saxena, Prateek. 2018
24.Replay Attacks and Defenses against Cross-shard Consensus in Sharded Distributed Ledgers Sonnino, Alberto and Bano, Shehar and Al-Bassam, Mustafa and Danezis, George. 2019
25.Replay Attacks and Defenses against Cross-shard Consensus in Sharded Distributed Ledgers Alberto Sonnino and Shehar Bano and Mustafa Al-Bassam and George Danezis. 2019